NASP Practice Model 10 Domains
The following domains, while described below as distinct, regularly interact and intersect within the context of service delivery. Understanding the domains helps inform the range of knowledge and skills school psychologists can provide. The NASP Practice Model outlines how services are integrated to best meet the needs of students, families, and the school community. A complete list of professional practice examples for each domain can be found in the NASP Practice Model Standards within the NASP 2020 Professional Standards.
Practices That Permeate All Aspects of Service Delivery
Domain 1: Data-Based Decision Making-School psychologists understand and utilize assessment methods for identifying strengths and needs; for developing effective interventions, services, and programs; and for measuring progress and outcomes within a multitiered system of supports. School psychologists also use a problem-solving framework as the basis for all professional activities. Through this process, they systematically collect data from multiple sources as a foundation for decision making at the individual, group, and systems levels while also considering ecological factors (e.g., classroom, family, and community characteristics) as a context for assessment and intervention.
Examples of school psychologists' professional practices associated with data-based decision making include:
- Collaborating with other members of an interdisciplinary team to conduct assessments to determine students’ need for services, including eligibility for special education, and to provide information relevant to the development of individual service plans.
- Collecting and analyzing data from multiple sources (e.g., parents/guardians, teachers, students) and levels (i.e., individual, group, and systems) to understand student needs and to select and implement evidence-based instructional and mental and behavioral health interventions and supports.
- Incorporating various techniques for collection, measurement, and analysis of data, accountability, and the use of technological resources in the evaluation of services at the individual, group, and/or systems levels.
- Using data to monitor academic, social, emotional, and behavioral progress; to measure student response, to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions, and to determine when to modify or change an intervention.
- Providing support for classroom teachers, school staff, and other stakeholders in collecting, analyzing, and interpreting universal screening and progress monitoring data to inform decision-making about the instructional, behavioral, and social-emotional needs of students.
- Assisting with the design and implementation of assessment procedures to determine the degree to which recommended interventions have been implemented, and they consider treatment fidelity data in all decisions that are based on intervention response and progress.
- Using systematic, reliable, and valid data collection procedures for evaluating the effectiveness and/or need for modification of school-based interventions and programs.
- Using information and technology resources to enhance data collection and decision-making. Using systematic, reliable, and valid data collection procedures for evaluating the effectiveness and/or need for modification of school-based interventions and programs.
- Using information and technology resources to enhance data collection and decision-making.
Domain 2: Consultation and Collaboration-School psychologists have knowledge of varied models and strategies of consultation, collaboration, and communication applicable to individuals, families, schools and systems, and methods to promote effective implementation of services. As part of a systematic and comprehensive process of effective decision-making and problem-solving that permeates all aspects of service delivery, school psychologists demonstrate skills to consult, collaborate, and communicate effectively with others. Examples of professional practices include:
- Using a consultative problem-solving process for planning, implementing, and evaluating all instructional, and mental and behavioral health services.
- Facilitating effective communication and collaboration among families, teachers, community providers, and others.
- Using consultation and collaboration when working at the individual, classroom, school, or systems levels.
- Advocating for needed change at the individual student, classroom, building, district, state, or national levels.
Direct and Indirect Services for Children, Families, and Schools: Student Level Services
Domain 3: Interventions and Instructional Support to Develop Academic Skills-School psychologists have knowledge of biological, cultural, and social influences on academic skills; human learning, cognitive, and developmental processes; and evidence-based curricula and instructional strategies. School psychologists, in collaboration with others, demonstrate skills to use assessment and data collection methods and to implement and evaluate services that support cognitive and academic skills. Examples of professional practices include:
- Implementing evidence-based interventions to improve student engagement and learning.
- Using assessment data to develop and implement evidence-based instructional strategies that will improve student performance.
- Working with other school personnel to ensure attainment of state and local benchmarks for all students.
- Sharing information about research in curriculum and instructional strategies.
- Promoting the use of instructional strategies for diverse learners and to meet individual learning needs.
- Using culturally responsive and developmentally appropriate assessment techniques to identify and diagnose disabilities that affect development and learning.
Domain 4: Interventions and Mental Health Services to Develop Social and Life Skills-School psychologists have knowledge of biological, cultural, developmental, and social influences on behavior and mental health, behavioral and emotional impacts on learning and life skills, and evidence-based strategies to promote social-emotional functioning. School psychologists, in collaboration with others, design, implement and evaluate services that promote resilience and positive behavior, support socialization, and adaptive skills, and enhance mental and behavioral health. Examples of professional practices include:
- Recognizing risk and protective factors and utilizing data and assessment to facilitate the design and delivery of curricula and interventions to help students develop effective social-emotional skills, such as self-regulation, self-monitoring, self-advocacy, planning/organization, empathy, positive coping strategies, interpersonal skills, and healthy decision-making.
- Integrating behavioral supports and mental health services with academic and learning goals for students.
- Demonstrating an understanding of the impact of trauma on social, emotional, and behavioral functioning, and implementing practices to reduce the effects of trauma on learning and behavior.
- Using systematic decision-making to consider the antecedents, consequences, functions, and causes of behavioral difficulties.
- Developing and implementing positive behavior supports at the individual, group, classroom, school, and district levels that demonstrate the use of appropriate ecological and behavioral approaches (e.g., positive reinforcement, social skills training, restorative justice practices, and positive psychology) to promote effective student discipline practices and classroom management strategies
- Evaluating evidence-based interventions to improve individual student social, emotional, and behavioral wellness.
Domain 5: School-Wide Services to Promote Safe and Supportive Schools-School psychologists have knowledge of school and systems structure, organization, and theory; general and special education; implementation science; and evidence-based school practices that promote learning and mental and behavioral health. School psychologists, in collaboration with others, demonstrate skills to develop and implement practices and strategies to create and maintain effective and supportive learning environments for students and others. Examples of professional practices include:
- Using knowledge of universal screening programs to identify students in need of instructional and behavioral support services.
- Developing, implementing, and evaluating prevention and intervention programs to ameliorate student risks that address precursors to learning and behavioral problems.
- Collaborating with other school personnel to create and maintain a multitiered continuum of services to support academic, social, emotional, and behavioral goals for students.
- Participating in and evaluating programs that promote positive school climates, wellness and resiliency, safe and non-violent schools and communities.
- Providing professional development and coaching for parents and staff to promote positive behavior and school engagement.
Domain 6: Preventive and Responsive Services-School psychologists have knowledge of principles and research related to resilience and risk factors in learning and mental health, services in schools and communities to support multitiered prevention, and evidence-based strategies for effective crisis response. School psychologists, in collaboration with others, demonstrate skills to promote services that enhance learning, mental and behavioral health, safety, and physical well-being through protective and adaptive factors and to implement effective crisis preparation, response, and recovery. Examples of professional practices include:
- Using knowledge of risk and protective factors to address problems such as school completion, truancy, bullying, youth suicide, and school violence.
- Developing, implementing, and evaluating prevention and intervention programs that address precursors to severe learning and behavioral problems.
- Participating in school crisis prevention and response teams.
- Participating in and evaluating programs that promote safe and violence-free schools and communities.
Domain 7: Family, School, and Community Collaboration-School psychologists have knowledge of principles and research related to family systems, strengths, needs, and culture; evidence-based strategies to support family influences on children’s learning and mental and behavioral health; and strategies to develop collaboration between families, schools and communities. School psychologists, in collaboration with others, demonstrate skills to design, implement, and evaluate services that respond to culture and context and facilitate family and school partnerships and interactions with community agencies for enhancement of academic and social–behavioral outcomes for children. Examples of professional practices include:
- Collaborating with and engaging parents in decision-making about their children.
- Promoting respect and appropriate services for cultural and linguistic differences.
- Promoting strategies for safe, nurturing, and dependable parenting and home interventions.
- Creating links among schools, families, and community providers to address the needs of students in non-traditional home settings (e.g. foster care, homeless shelters, etc.).
- Using evidence-based strategies to design, implement, and evaluate effective policies and practices that promote family, school, and community partnerships.
Foundations of School Psychological Service Delivery
Domain 8: Diversity in Development and Learning-School psychologists have knowledge of individual differences, abilities, disabilities, and other diverse student characteristics; principles and research related to diversity factors for children, families, and schools, including factors related to culture, context, and individual and role difference; and evidence-based strategies to enhance services and address potential influences related to diversity. School psychologists provide professional services that promote effective functioning for individuals, families, and schools with diverse characteristics, cultures, and backgrounds and across multiple contexts. Understanding and recognizing equitable practices for diverse student populations in development and learning, and advocacy for social justice, are foundations for all aspects of service delivery. Examples of professional practices include:
- Addressing individual differences, strengths, backgrounds, and needs in the design, implementation, and evaluation of all services.
- Using a strengths-based approach for addressing the needs of English language learners.
- Promoting fairness and social justice in school policies and programs.
Domain 9: Research and Program Evaluation-School psychologists have knowledge of research design, statistics, measurement, varied data collection and analysis techniques, and program evaluation sufficient for understanding research and interpreting data in applied settings. School psychologists demonstrate skills to evaluate and apply research as a foundation for service delivery and, in collaboration with others, use various techniques and technology resources for data collection, measurement, and analysis to support effective practices at the individual, group, and/or systems levels. Examples of professional practices include:
- Using research findings as the foundation for effective service delivery.
- Using techniques of data collection to evaluate services at the individual, group, and systems levels.
- Assisting teachers in collecting meaningful student data.
- Applying knowledge of evidence-based interventions to evaluate the fidelity and effectiveness of school-based intervention plans.
Domain 10: Legal, Ethical, and Professional Practice-School psychologists have knowledge of the history and foundations of school psychology; multiple service models and methods; ethical, legal, and professional standards; and other factors related to professional identity and effective practice as school psychologists. School psychologists demonstrate skills to provide services consistent with ethical, legal, and professional standards; engage in responsive ethical and professional decision-making; collaborate with other professionals; and apply professional work characteristics needed for effective practice as school psychologists, including respect for human diversity and social justice, communication skills, effective interpersonal skills, responsibility, adaptability, initiative, dependability, and technology skills. Examples of professional practices include:
- Remaining knowledgeable about ethical and professional standards, and legal regulations.
- Assisting administrators, other school personnel, and parents in understanding regulations relevant to general and special education.
- Engaging in professional development and life-long learning.
- Using supervision and mentoring for effective practices.
- Supporting the retention and growth of fellow school psychologists by providing supervision, peer consultation, and mentoring to those seeking such support.