School Psychology Review

General Issue
Volume 46, Issue 2 (2017)

Editor: Amy L. Reschly


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  • A Meta-Analysis of Class-Wide Interventions for Supporting Student Behavior

    Ruth K. Chaffee, Amy M. Briesch, Austin H. Johnson & Robert J. Volpe

    pp. 149–164

    Abstract. Off-task and disruptive classroom behavior impedes the learning of the children emitting these behaviors as well as the delivery of instruction to the entire class, which may lead to decreased academic achievement and more severe behavior problems. A meta-analysis of the single-case literature was conducted to understand the effectiveness of class-wide interventions in supporting student behavior in general education settings. Twenty-nine studies of K–12 classrooms, published between January 1969 and September 2015, were included for analysis. Two effect sizes, the Hedges, Pustejovsky, and Shadish (2012, 2013) d-statistic and Tau-U (Parker, Vannest, Davis, & Sauber, 2011), were calculated for relevant studies and designs. The results of a random-effects meta-analysis using the d-statistic resulted in an estimated overall effect of 2.04 (95% CI [1.67, 2.41]) and an overall effect of 0.93 (95% CI [0.87, 0.99]) using Tau-U. The implications of these findings for interventions implemented in the general education classroom are discussed.

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  • Multilevel Examination of Burnout Among High School Staff: Importance of Staff and School Factors

    Lindsey O'Brennan, Elise Pas & Catherine Bradshaw

    pp. 165–176

    Abstract. Previous studies have linked teacher burnout with job performance, satisfaction, and retention; however, there has been limited exploration of potential individual and school contextual factors that may influence burnout. The current study examined high school staff members’ reports of burnout as they relate to staff demographics and perceptions of self-efficacy and connectedness, as well as school-level contextual variables (e.g., suspension rate and urbanicity). Data were collected from 3,225 high school staff (e.g., teachers and paraprofessionals) in 58 high schools (grades 9–12) across Maryland. Multilevel analyses indicated that perceptions of connectedness, safety, and self-efficacy as well as staff demographics were significantly related to experiences of work-related burnout. At the school level, only school-wide suspension rates were significantly related to higher burnout. These findings highlight the importance of staff perceptions of the school context as factors that can potentially promote or diminish professional burnout among high school staff.

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  • Conflict, Closeness, and Academic Skills: A Longitudinal Examination of the Teacher–Student Relationship

    Benjamin A. Mason, Daniel B. Hajovsky, Luke A. McCune & Joshua J. Turek

    pp. 177–189

    Abstract. The longitudinal relations between teacher–student relationship quality (TSRQ) and student achievement were examined to determine the directional associations between the quality of teacher-rated closeness and conflict with students, and measured math and reading achievement in a large, multisite sample of U.S. youth at first, third, and fifth grade. A longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis model of panel data was employed. After testing longitudinal factorial invariance across time, we tested heterogeneity in the factor variances and differences in the latent means. Math and reading achievement had longitudinal reciprocal relations. Math achievement explained small differences in subsequent teacher-rated closeness after controlling for previous levels of math achievement and teacher-rated closeness. Teacher-rated conflict served as a small but significant predictor of subsequent math achievement across measured time points but previous teacher-rated closeness did not explain subsequent reading or math achievement at any time point. Teacher-rated conflict was relatively stable across grades, whereas teacher-rated closeness varied from first to third grade. Reading and math achievement were highly stable predictors of future achievement. The findings suggested that in a lower-risk sample, measures of TSRQ and achievement may serve as predictors or outcomes and directionality of effects should not be assumed in advance.

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  • Predicting Intervention Effectiveness From Reading Accuracy and Rate Measures Through the Instructional Hierarchy: Evidence for a Skill-by-Treatment Interaction

    Isadora Szadokierski, Matthew K. Burns & Jennifer J. McComas

    pp. 190–200

    Abstract. The current study used the learning hierarchy/instructional hierarchy phases of acquisition and fluency to predict intervention effectiveness based on preintervention reading skills. Preintervention reading accuracy (percentage of words read correctly) and rate (number of words read correctly per minute) were assessed for 49 second- and third-grade students who then participated in a brief experimental analysis to determine whether they responded best to an acquisition (modeling) or a fluency (repeated reading) intervention package. Analyses indicated significant preintervention differences between students who responded to each intervention package. Preintervention accuracy and rate predicted the intervention to which students would better respond. Finally, a potential criterion (i.e., reading 85% of the words correctly with 32 words read correctly per minute) differentiated whether the students would benefit more from an acquisition or a proficiency intervention, supporting a skill-bytreatment interaction framework for reading.

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  • Do Teacher–Child Relationship and Friendship Quality Matter for Children’s School Engagement and Academic Skills?

    Naheed E. Hosan & Wendy Hoglund

    pp. 201–218

    Abstract. This study examined three competing models assessing the directional associations between the quality of children’s relationships with teachers and friends (i.e., closeness and conflict) and their emotional and behavioral school engagement (i.e., the relationship-driven, engagement-driven, and transactional models). The additive contributions of relationship quality and school engagement to prospective academic skills and age-related differences in these associations were also assessed. Models were tested using autoregressive, cross-lagged path analyses. Participants were 461 low-income, ethnically diverse children from kindergarten to Grade 3, who were assessed three times in one school term. In support of the relationship-driven model, closeness with friends and conflict with teachers and friends predicted prospective emotional engagement. In support of the transactional model, friendship closeness and teacher–child and friendship conflict transacted with behavioral engagement over the school term. Higher emotional engagement and, unexpectedly, friendship conflict predicted higher prospective academic skills. Associations between relationship closeness and behavioral engagement were significant for older children only.

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  • Training the Next Generation of School Psychologists to Deliver Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices: Current Challenges and Future Directions

    Elisa S. Shernoff, Sarah Kate Bearman & Thomas R. Kratochwill

    pp. 219–232

    Abstract. School psychologists are uniquely positioned to support the delivery of evidence-based mental health practices (EBMHPs) to address the overwhelming mental health needs of children and youth. Graduate training programs can promote EBMHPs in schools by ensuring school psychologists enter the workplace prepared to deliver and support high-quality, effective services. Despite the remarkable growth of effective interventions to address a range of mental health problems, more work is needed to develop and adapt existing graduate training curricula to address this pressing issue. Using a problem-solving framework, we sequentially identify and analyze current challenges in training the next generation of school psychologists in EBMHPs. These challenges include how EBMHPs are packaged and structured, researchers’ limited understanding of how culture affects efficacy, and continual shifts in evidence-based practice designations. These challenges provide a basis for the adaptation and future direction of training in EBMHPs. System-level changes and adaptations to professional practice standards are also discussed.

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  • Guidelines for Authors

    pp. 233–235

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  • Accepted Manuscripts for Forthcoming Issues

    pp. 236

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