School Psychology Review

General Issue
Volume 46, Issue 1 (2017)

Editor: Amy L. Reschly


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  • The Therapeutic Mechanisms of Check, Connect, and Expect

    Scott A. Stage and Sally B. Galanti

    pp. 3–20

    Abstract. Given the high prevalence of Tier 2 behavioral intervention use and calls to examine mediation and moderation effects on treatment for children, this study tested the mediation effect of the daily progress report and moderation effects of coach–student, teacher–student, and student–teacher relationships and their interactions for 95 elementary school students who received the Check, Connect, and Expect intervention. The only significant finding was the moderating effect of the student–teacher and teacher–student relationships. A significant interaction between the moderating effects showed that a positive student–teacher relationship showed overall reductions in total problem behavior across an academic year. This result is interpreted as students’ perception of a positive relationship with their teacher as critical to the therapeutic mechanism of Tier 2 behavioral interventions.

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  • Improving Middle School Students’ Subjective Well-Being: Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Intervention Targeting Small Groups of Youth

    Rachel A. Roth, Shannon M. Suldo, and John M. Ferron

    pp. 21-41

    Abstract. Most interventions intended to improve subjective well-being, termed positive psychology interventions (PPIs), have neglected to include relevant stakeholders in youth’s lives and have not included booster sessions intended to maintain gains in subjective well-being. The current study investigated the impact of a multitarget, multicomponent (i.e., students plus parents), small group PPI on students’ mental health (subjective well-being as well as symptoms of internalizing and externalizing forms of psychopathology) at postintervention and approximately two months follow-up. Forty-two seventh-grade students were randomly assigned either to immediately receive the PPI or to a wait-list control group. At postintervention, students who participated in the PPI evidenced significant gains in all indicators of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect), and there was a trend for practically meaningful reductions in internalizing and externalizing problems relative to the control group. At follow-up, gains in positive affect were maintained. Findings provide preliminary support for this multicomponent PPI as an evidence-based schoolbased intervention that causes long-lasting improvements in early adolescents’ positive affect, a primary indicator of subjective well-being.

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  • Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Factors Associated With Bullying

    Lyndsay N. Jenkins, Michelle K. Demaray, and Jaclyn Tennant

    pp. 42–64

    Abstract. The purpose of the current study was to understand the association between bullying experiences (i.e., bullying, victimization, and defending) and social, emotional, and cognitive factors. The social factor was social skills (i.e., empathy, assertion, cooperation, responsibility); the emotional factor was emotional difficulties (i.e., personal adjustment, internalizing problems, school problems), and the cognitive factor was executive functioning skills (i.e., self-monitoring, inhibitory control, flexibility, emotional regulation). Data on students’ perceptions of their own social skills, emotional difficulties, and bullying role behavior were collected from 246 sixth- through eighth-grade students. Teachers provided reports of students’ executive functioning skills. Results indicated that (a) emotional difficulties were significantly and positively associated with victimization for boys and girls, (b) emotional difficulties were significantly and positively associated with defending for girls, (c) executive functioning was significantly and negatively associated with defending for boys, and (d) social skills were significantly and positively related to defending behavior for boys and girls. These results emphasize the importance of examining the social, emotional, and cognitive factors associated with bullying. Social skills and emotional and executive functioning appear to vary systematically across bullying roles and should be considered when developing targeted social– emotional interventions to stop bullying, increase defending, and support victims or those at risk for victimization.

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  • Relative Value of Common Screening Measures in Mathematics

    Amanda M. VanDerHeyden, Robin S. Codding, and Ryan Martin

    pp. 65-87

    Abstract. Schools need evidence-based guidance on which measures in mathematics, administered under what particular set of conditions (e.g., time of year), provide the most useful prediction. The purpose of this study was to examine decision accuracy among commonly used screening measures with a priority toward identifying the least costly screening measures for predicting year-end mathematics failure. Predictors included existing demographic characteristics, the preceding year-end mathematics test score, and multiple measures administered during the study year including multiskill computation and concepts/applications measures, addition and subtraction for third grade, multiplication and division for fourth grade, and multidigit multiplication for fifth grade. Results supported the use of a single measure for screening. The preceding year’s test score was superior or comparable in accuracy to current-year screening measures and was the lowest cost option (i.e., required no additional assessment time). Results cautioned against the use of multiskill computation and concepts/applications measures at all grade levels because of a high number of false-negative errors. The single-skill computation measures performed comparably to the preceding year-end test in overall accuracy. However, the single-skill probes outperformed all other measures in detecting students who would fail the year-end test, which is the most important function of a screening device. For most measures, the winter screening occasion offered the best predictive accuracy.

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  • Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning Influences on Middle School Mathematics Achievement

    Timothy J. Cleary and Anastasia Kitsantas

    pp. 88-107

    Abstract. The primary purpose of the current study was to use structural equation modeling to examine the relations among background variables (socioeconomic status, prior mathematics achievement), motivation variables (self-efficacy, task interest, school connectedness), self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors, and performance in middle school mathematics courses. Of particular interest was examining the mediation roles of both self-efficacy and SRL behaviors. Data about three types of motivation beliefs (self-efficacy, task interest, connectedness) were obtained from 331 middle school students using self-report questionnaires, while information regarding student SRL behaviors was obtained from teacher ratings. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed an acceptable fit of the data to the proposed model. In addition to the overall model explaining 51% of the variance in mathematics performance, a key finding was that both cognitive (i.e., self-efficacy) and behavioral (i.e., SRL) latent factors served as key mediators in the model, with each of these factors exhibiting unique effects on mathematics performance after controlling for prior achievement. Furthermore, each of the three motivation beliefs played an important role in the model, particularly regarding the explanation of SRL behaviors. Directions for future research and implications for practice are discussed.

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  • Generalizability of Multiple Measures of Treatment Integrity: Comparisons Among Direct Observation, Permanent Products, and Self-Report

    Frank M. Gresham, Evan H. Dart, and Tai A. Collins

    pp. 108-121

    Abstract. The concept of treatment integrity is an essential component to databased decision making within a response-to-intervention model. Although treatment integrity is a topic receiving increased attention in the school-based intervention literature, relatively few studies have been conducted regarding the technical adequacy of treatment integrity assessment methods. In light of recent research utilizing generalizability theory (G theory) to assess the dependability of behavioral measurement in schools, the current study used G theory to examine the dependability of direct observation, permanent products, and self-report as measures of treatment integrity when six teachers implemented the Good Behavior Game across three study sites. Results indicated that direct observation yielded the most reliable treatment integrity data, followed by permanent products and self-report. Specifically, when assessment of treatment integrity is conducted twice per week, direct observation should provide a dependable estimate ( .821) after only four assessments. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

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  • Efficacy of Peer-Mediated Incremental Rehearsal for English Language Learners

    David A. Klingbeil, Mariola Moeyaert, Christopher T. Archer, Tatenda M. Chimboza, and Scott A. Zwolski Jr.

    pp. 122–140

    Abstract. School psychologists will likely become more involved in supporting the reading achievement of English language learners (ELLs). This requires evidence-based interventions that are validated for ELL students. Incremental rehearsal (IR) is an evidence-based intervention for teaching words, but the resource intensity often precludes its use. Using peers as interventionists may increase the contextual validity of IR while maintaining the benefits when compared with other drill techniques. This efficacy study examined if (a) peermediated IR (PMIR) was effective for teaching ELL students high-frequency words and (b) improvements in word reading generalized to changes in students’ oral reading fluency. Five ELL students participated in a randomized multiple-baseline design across participants. Results indicated that PMIR was functionally related to an increase in word reading for all 5 participants. Effect sizes estimated using TauU and multilevel modeling indicated that PMIR had a large effect on sight-word reading. No functional relationship between PMIR and oral reading fluency was observed. PMIR was generally acceptable to target students and peer tutors. Limitations and potential implications of the results are discussed.

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  • Guidelines for Authors

    p. 141

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