School Psychology Review

NASP at Ten
Volume 8, Issue 2 (1979 )

Editor: Dan Reschly

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  • Editorial Comment

    Dan Reschly

    pp. 2

    “NASP at Ten” serves as the theme for this issue of School Psychology Digest. A wide array of articles was selected around general topics in school psychology such as history of NASP, current status of school psychologists, and problems and trends in school psychology. In addition to this “general theme” content, there are two collections of articles in which contrasting views on issues of great concern to school psychologists are presented.

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  • History of the National Association of School Psychologists: The First Decade

    William H. Farling, James Angeri

    pp. 140-152

    The National Association of School Psychologists was formed on March 15, 1969during a two day national planning convention in St. Louis. More than 400 persons from 24 states, most of whom were practicing school psychologists, met to consider the status and future of school psychology. There was an excitement and a sense of drama in the air. As the meeting hall filled to overflowing at the first gathering, there was an immediate and pervasive sense of history in the making. Expressions communicated that indeed something important was going to happen; faces reflected the exhilaration of being part of the creation of something of broad and meaningful proportions. During the next two days small and large group discussions and plenary sessions produced fervent deliberations. The result was the formation of a new and activist national organization with four purposes: a) to promote actively the interests of school psychology; b) to advance the standards of the profession; c) to help secure the conditions necessary to the greatest effectiveness of its practice; and d) to serve the mental health and educational interest of all children and youth. A tentative constitution was adopted; officers were elected (headed by Pauline Alexander, the first NASP president); standing committees were organized and chairpersons appointed; membership eligibility, procedures and dues were determined; a budget plan was passed; governing procedures were established; a part-time executive secretary was appointed; and tentative plans for a second national convention were made. These developments over such a few days were truly remarkable.

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  • National Survey of School Psychologists: Update

    Jean Ramage

    pp. 153-161

    The purpose of the “National Survey of School Psychologists” was to provide information to be used as the basis for research and policy decisions in the field of school psychology. The study included questions from the Farling and Hoedt (1971)study about professional affiliation, professional practice, role and function, professional affiliation, professional practice, role and function, professional needs and problems, part-time activities, salary and contractual arrangements, psychologist to student ratios, private practice and future development of the profession. The 1971survey was updated by adding questions about continuing professional development needs and ethnic status of school psychologists. Some of the questions on contractual arrangements were used by permission from the Hyman (1975) study.

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  • Will the Real School Psychologist Please Stand Up? Part I - How Best to Establish Identity

    Jack I. Bardon

    pp. 162-167

    In this brief presentation, I want to present the American Psychological Association position on standards for practice in professional psychology; a parable; several questions and answers; and some suggestions to NASP related both to the parable and to the questions and answers I will pose. I will appear to be more dogmatic than I really intend to be. I recognize that the topics I will discuss are emotional ones for most of us. I ask you to try to understand the broad issues involved in what I plan to say and not single out poorly phrased thoughts or isolated fragments of what I present as representing the totality of my views.

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  • Will the Real School Psychologist Please Stand Up? Part II - The Drive for Independence

    Douglas T. Brown

    pp. 168-173

    A broadening array of professional and political decisions are in the process of being debated by school psychologists nationally. As with other major debates in psychology and education, the resolution to many of the issues may be thrust upon the profession so precipitously that few will discern the long term implications. The current set of events has, however, been predictable if one looks historically at the profession. School Psychology with its roots embedded in both psychology and education is in the process of establishing a permanent identity which is undoubtedly a blend of the two disciplines. Those who align themselves with generic psychology would prefer to deny its collateral educational ties. Others would advance school psychology rapidly toward total affiliation with education. In this presentation those critical issues which require our immediate attention will be discussed. An effort will be made to separate issues which are political or “guild” in nature from philosophical and service provision issues. An examination of the organizational policies which govern school psychology will be made with some attention to ramification of these policies.

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  • Will the Real School Psychologist Please Stand Up? Part III - Jurisdictional Imperialism

    Irwin A. Hyman

    pp. 174-180

    Immediately preceding and during my year as President of the Division of School Psychology of the American Psychological Association, I presented a number of speeches concerning the resolution of conflicts within the school psychology community. This current paper represents an integration of the concepts discussed previously. The distillation of those concepts is organized into a discussion of external and internal threats to the future of school psychology in America. Following the presentation of the threats are recommendations and a brief review of actions which I have taken in order to move toward positive resolutions of current problems.

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  • Reactions to the Debate: Commentaries

    Jack Bardon, Douglas T. Brown, Irwin A. Hyman

    pp. 181-186

    In the spirit in which my presentation was given at the March 1978 meetings of NASP in New York, I will try to avoid criticism of any minor points or misunderstandings made by Brown and Hyman. Rather, I want to point out areas of major agreement and disagreement, so that my views on the identity of school psychology are further clarified.

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  • The School Psychologist and Collective Barganing: The Brokerage of Influence and Professional Concerns

    Thomas C. Agin

    pp. 187-192

    Introduction: Although the union movement in this country has a long history, collective bargaining by public sector employees is still a relatively new phenomenon. The“National Labor Relations Act” does not cover any public employees, and many states still have legislation prohibiting the organization of government employees under their jurisdiction. The current trend, however, appears to be toward granting collective bargaining rights to public employees similar to those of their counterparts in the private sector.

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  • Adulthood: New Frontier for Vocational School Psychology

    Thomas H. Hohenshil

    pp. 193-198

    The rationale for the rapidly developing concept and practice of vocational school psychology has been firmly established in a number of professional publications,convention programs, and national commissions (See Winter, 1978 issue of The School Psychology Digest). The National Commission for the Study of School Psychology in Vocational and Career Education Programs, in a report endorsed by the NASP Executive Board in July of 1978, recommended that a specialty in vocational school psychology be developed to serve secondary students and adults. The Commission further recommended that NASP propose guidelines for the preparation and credentialing of vocational school psychologists, and sponsor national and regional seminars to assist school psychologist trainers and internship supervisors to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to train others in vocational school psychology. In addition, the Commission recommended that school psychologists should initiate research on their roles in vocational school psychology in order to provide documentation for program outcomes(Report of the National Commission for the Study of School Psychology in Vocational and Career Education Programs, 1978).

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  • Increasing a World of Understanding in School Psychology Through International Communication and Cooperation

    Calvin Catterrall

    pp. 199-201

    The years of 1969 to 1979 have seen a tremendous increase in the amount of interest and involvement in international communication and cooperation in the field of school psychology. Although most courses in psychology in the United States identify the European antecedents of modern theory, there is little reference in our school psychology literature about the application of psychology to the learning and behavior problems in the schools in other countries of the world.

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  • Requiem for the Testing Role?

    Steve E. Landau, Kathyrn Clark Gerken

    pp. 202-206

    ABSTRACT: In order to determine if school psychologists are functioning in activities considered most desirable by other school personnel, public school administrators and classroom teachers described their school psychologists in terms of those activities engaged in most often versus those most preferred. Consistent with previous research, principals endorsed the psychometric function as both the most prevalent activity and most desirable. Classroom teachers, on the other hand, expressed dissonance between what they perceived as the most frequent school psychologist role and what was felt as most desirable. Implications of these findings are suggested.

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  • SOMPA - Commentary on Mercer's Rejoinder to Clarizio

    Harvey F. Clarizio

    pp. 207-209

    I will restrict my response to those criticisms which Professor Mercer has made regarding my article entitled In Defense of the IQ Test. My commentary will be brief because of space limitations. Any errors reflected in the thought processes that follow should be interpreted in accordance with my sociocultural status as a first generation Italian.

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  • SOMPA - Research on the ABIC and ELP: A Revisit to an Old Topic

    Thomas Oakland

    pp. 209-213

    The previous issue of the School Psychology Digest (8(1), 1979), by presenting articles which review and comment critically on the Systems of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA), encourages a dialog between Mercer and others and allows the reader to discern different sides to issues germane to the SOMPA. This process is particularly useful when the respondent addresses the major issues discussed in other articles.

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  • SOMPA - The Algebra Works - But What Does It Mean?

    F.G. Brown

    pp. 213-218

    While disagreeing on many points and issues. Mercer and I appear to agree on one major point-the design of educational programs for children must be based on accurate and valid diagnostic information. Both as a matter of good assessment practice and to meet certain legal requirements, this information should consider not only the child’s current level of functioning and performance, but also those past and present circumstances which may affect performance (e.g., variables associated with health and the family and social environments). Where we disagree is whether the SOMPA provides this information.

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  • SOMPA - "Ignorance" Versus "Stupidity" - The Basic Disagreement

    Joan F. Goodwin

    pp. 218-223

    I differ with Jane Mercer on two basic issues (among other, less basic, ones): the acceptability of SOMPA as a measure (even a rough measure) of a child’s basic intellectual potential; and the suitability of SOMPA for use as the principal instrument in classifying children for educational purposes. First, although properly critical of the reification of “intelligence”, and of the notion that the standard IQ test measures a child’s biological capacity to learn, Mercer, nevertheless, believes that it is useful to attempt such a measure and that SOMPA succeeds, at least approximately, in providing one. Second, she maintains that it is this rough measure of basic potential, rather than any measure of current functional level, that should be used as the principal basis for grouping children in school. I, on the other hand, believe that neither SOMPA nor any other grouping of tests can tell us a child’s basic biological potential and that, on balance, it is more dangerous than beneficial to pretend that we have such knowledge, even approximately. I further hold that for most educational classifications, current functional level is a more relevant datum than basic potential,even if the latter could accurately be measured.

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  • Professional Pulse

    Thomas K. Fagan

    pp. 224-231

    INTRODUCTION: Though space does not permit the printing of the hundreds of names and events of historical significance to NASP, the following have been selected from previous newsletters, minutes, and documents I have stored over the years. Certainly the past NASP documents will never bring much return at your local flea market but the personal satisfaction from reviewing them simply cannot be measured in dollar and cents. Actually, I’m optimistic these historical tidbits will place in perspective how far our Association has come in just ten years. Should I fail in reaching that goal, at least I will have provided the beginnings for those persons who enjoy standing around at conventions trying to outdo others in citing NASP trivia. Maybe the idea could be packaged and distributed through our State Delegates at local association meetings.It’s a hard market to corner ‘cause trivia seems to be generated at an enormous rate at all levels. Well, I have to start somewhere ...

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  • Book Review

    pp. 232-233

    The Public School Version of Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) is a revision of the 1974 Adaptive Behavior Scale which is a behavior rating scale for mentally retarded,emotionally maladjusted, and developmentally disabled individuals. The Public School Version is appropriate for pupils between the ages of 7 years 3 months and 13years 2 months.

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  • Alternative Teacher Consultation Model: A Case Study

    John E. Langhorne, Jr., Carl Paternite, Jan Loney

    pp. 235-239

    A major trend in the behavioral intervention with children has been the delivery of services into the community at large, (e.g., Tharp & Wetzel, 1969). The elementary classroom has been a favorite location for such intervention because of the generally positive response of school personnel to behavior change programming. The number of How-To-Modify-Behavior books and manuals for teachers (e.g., Ackerman, 1972;Carter, 1972) reflects this concern for and interest in working with the schools. The trend toward a behavioral teacher-consultation model, usually involving a consultant working with classroom teachers individually, has been strengthened by the development and application of in vivo behavior measurement techniques, which are appropriate to the classroom environment (O’Leary & 0-Leary, 1972; Hops & Cobb,1973; Mac Donald & Tanabe, 1973; Madsen & Madsen, 1974). The use of such techniques can provide immediate and objective assessment criteria with which to measure behavior change, provide feedback to teachers, and periodically re-evaluate programming.

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  • The Occupational Implications of Learning Patterns

    Jane D. Wallbrown

    pp. 240-244

    The case of Phil Smith illustrates how important it is for the school psychologist to consider the relative strengths and weaknesses in information processing for a learning disabled student who is working in a vocational education program. Phil was first introduced to the psychologist by the school counselor who said, “We've been talking about Phil’s problems with his work-study program. He’s having trouble understanding just what is expected of him. He also tells me that he used to be in a class for learning disabled students. Since I can’t find any specific information concerning his learning pattern in his cumulative record, would you have time to work with him to see where he is now?” An appointment was scheduled for the next day since the look on Phil’s face conveyed a feeling of urgency.

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