School Psychology Review

General Issue
Volume 34, Issue 2 (2005 )

Editor: Susan M. Sheridan


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  • Understanding the Effects of Physical and Relational Victimization: The Utility of Multiple Perspectives in Predicting Social-Emotional Adjustment

    Crystal Cullerton-Sen, Nicki R. Crick

    pp. 147-160

    Abstract. Current tools for assessing children’s social behavior in school psychology research and practice typically do not adequately measure issues most salient for young girls (e.g., experiences of relational victimization). The relation among teacher, peer, and self-reports of relational and physical peer victimization was examined for 119 fourth grade boys (n = 58) and girls (n = 61) as part of a larger,longitudinal study. Girls were more likely to be victims of relationally aggressive acts, whereas boys were more often targets of physical victimization. Teacher reports added unique information in the prediction of social–emotional adjustment(acceptance, rejection, internalizing, and externalizing) beyond that accounted forby peer and self-reports. Teacher reports of relational victimization differentially contributed to the prediction of adjustment beyond that accounted for by physical victimization for boys and girls. The need for further research and implications of these findings is discussed.

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  • Quantifying Context in Assessment: Capturing the Effect of Base Rates on Teacher Referral and a Problem-Solving Model of Identification

    Amanda M. VanDerHeyden, Joseph C. Witt

    pp. 161-183

    Abstract. The purpose of this article was to examine the effect of base rate occurrence of race, sex, and student achievement on the accuracy of a problem-solving model of assessment and teacher referral. All students in first and second grade (n= 182) at a participating school were exposed to four screening measures. Students who performed poorly on at least one of the screening measures participated in a more thorough assessment process including individual curriculum-based assessment with individual intervention. The predictive accuracy (e.g., sensitivity,specificity) of the problem-solving model and teacher referral was examined using the more thorough assessment process as the standard for comparison. The degree to which the problem-solving model and teacher referral correctly identified male and female children, children of minority and non-minority ethnicity, and children in high-achieving and low-achieving classrooms was specified. Further,the efficiency of the problem-solving model and teacher referral was examined by comparing identification relative to base rate occurrence of problems in the screened population.

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  • Effects of Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM) Teacher Feedback in General Education Classrooms

    Suzanne Bamonto Graney, Mark R. Shinn

    pp. 184-201

    Abstract. This study examined the effects of teacher feedback from Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM) progress results for low-performing students in general education classrooms. Participants included 44 second-grade teachers and 184 students in their low reading groups. After 5 weeks of progress monitoring,teachers in the two experimental groups were given progress results of (a) a single student in the reading group or (b) all students in the reading group. Teachers in the control group received no progress monitoring feedback. Progress feedback did not affect subsequent progress as hypothesized. However, students’ reading progress in all three groups improved reliably during the second half of the study,suggesting some reactive benefits of progress monitoring. The need to increase the type and quality of teacher feedback and to support teachers to use progress monitoring data in general education settings to make instructional changes is discussed.

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  • Training Teachers to Give Effective Commands: Effects on Student Compliance and Academic Behaviors

    Andrea Starkweather Matheson, Mark D. Shriver

    pp. 202-219

    Abstract. This study examined the effects of effective command training with teachers on students’ compliance rates and academic engagement. Three target students were selected who were exhibiting compliance rates substantially below peers.The students’ teachers were taught how to provide effective commands. Results indicated that students’ rates of compliance increased with increased use of effective commands. When verbal praise was added contingent on compliance, students’rates of compliance increased even more. In addition, academic engagement was shown to increase as student compliance increased and disruptive competing behaviors decreased. Implications for consultation and intervention in the classroom to increase student compliance and academic behaviors are discussed.

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  • Increasing Treatment Integrity Through Negative Reinforcement: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior

    Florence D. DiGennaro, Brian K. Martens, Laura Lee McIntyre

    pp. 220-231

    Abstract. The current study examined the extent to which treatment integrity was increased and maintained for 4 teachers in their regular classroom settings as a result of performance feedback and negative reinforcement. Teachers received daily written feedback about their accuracy in implementing an intervention and were able to avoid meeting with a consultant to practice missed steps by implementing the procedure with 100% integrity. Treatment integrity increased for all 4 teachers and gains were maintained over time. Decreases in off-task behavior were observed for 3 of the 4 student participants. Results suggest that an intervention package of performance feedback and negative reinforcement may be a viable, time-efficient technique for increasing the integrity of plan implementation by teachers in the classroom.

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  • Stimulant Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Medication Monitoring Practices of School Psychologists

    David P. Gureasko-Moore, George J. DuPaul, Thomas J. Power

    pp. 232-245

    Abstract. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is commonly treated with stimulant medications, and several models for school-based medication monitoring have been proposed. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research examining the prevalence of medication monitoring. A survey examining the medication monitoring practices of school psychologists was sent to 700 potential participants,with a usable return rate of 64.7%. Nearly 55% of the respondents were involved in monitoring the effects of medications for students with ADHD, and a higher percentage indicated that medication monitoring is an important role for school psychologists. Teacher and parent rating forms and interviews, direct observation,and review of work samples were perceived as the most effective, acceptable,and feasible monitoring methods. These findings suggest that many school psychologists are engaged in medication monitoring and are willing to perform this role. Barriers and facilitators to medication monitoring in the schools are discussed.In addition, the implications for school-based medication monitoring are explored.

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  • The Effects of Computerized Reading Instruction on the Academic Performance of Students Identified With ADHD

    Julie Clarfield, Gary Stoner

    pp. 246-254

    Abstract. A computerized program, Headsprout, was investigated as an intervention for beginning reading instruction with 3 students identified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A multiple-baseline design, across subjects,was implemented to investigate the program’s effects on oral reading fluency and task engagement. Results of the investigation suggest the program was effective in improving both outcomes, as compared with teacher-directed instruction.These results are discussed in terms of the potential costs and benefits of computerized academic interventions for children with ADHD.

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  • Guidelines for Articles, Forthcoming Articles

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