School Psychology Review
Preventing Academic Failure
Edward S. Shapiro
Mini-Series on Primary Prevention: From Theory on Practice and Mini-Series on Research Methods in School Psychology
NASP Members: Log in to download this article
ABSTRACT: A number of intervention procedures have been developed which may offer potential as strategies to prevent academic failure. Each of these procedures has been empirically evaluated and field tested with large numbers of students.Included among these procedures are peer tutoring, the Adaptive Education Learning Model, Direct Instruction and Behavior Analysis, Strategy Training and other cognitive-behavioral techniques,and self-management. These procedures were developed based on research identifying the critical variables for acquisition and mastery of basic academic skills.Description and analysis of each technique is discussed. Finally, potential barriers to implementing prevention programs for academics kills are addressed.