School Psychology Review

Mini-Series on Primary Prevention: From Theory on Practice and Mini-Series on Research Methods in School Psychology
Volume 17, Issue 4 (1988 )

Editor: Stephen N. Elliott

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  • Editor's Comments

    Stephen N. Elliott

    pp. 535

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  • Guidelines for Authors, Etc.

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  • Guest Editors' Comments (Primary Prevention)

    Joseph Zins, Susan G. Forman

    pp. 539-541

    Teen aged parents. Academic failure. Substance abuse. Youth suicide. Divorce. AIDS. Childhood depression. Juvenile delinquency. Sexual abuse. The list of problems facing students in our schools today continues to grow and seemingly is endless. Yet, our time and resources remain limited.

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  • Primary Prevention: Expanding the Impact of Psychological Services in Schools

    Joseph Zins, Robert Conyne, Charlene R. Ponti

    pp. 542-549

    ABSTRACT: Primary prevention interventions are used to reduce the incidence or the number of new cases of a disorder occurring within a population. These interventions provide a viable means by which school psychologists can expand their impact within the schools. The major dimensions of primary prevention were discussed as were the general means by which such services can be provided. Although there is a belief that no available technology of primary prevention exists, this myth is refuted through a discussion of the various procedures which offer great potential for the achievement of primary prevention goals. Several model projects were described as examples of the types of programs that can be implemented in schools.

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  • School-Based Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse: Programs, Implementation, and Future Directions

    Susan G. Forman, Jean Ann Linney

    pp. 550-558

    ABSTRACT: This article reviews the major approaches to school-based substance abuse prevention and focuses on school organizational issues which must be considered in the implementation of such programs. In addition, the need for multilevel interventions, which include parents, the community, and media, is explored.

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  • Strategies for the Primary Prevention of Adolescent Suicide

    John M. Davis, Jonathan Sandoval, Milton P. Wilson

    pp. 559-569

    ABSTRACT: Adolescent suicide and suicide prevention have come to be much discussed, written about, and even researched topics. This article provides an overview of research and programs aimed specifically at the primary prevention of adolescent suicide.In addition to reviewing person-centered suicide prevention, educational programs for students, school personnel, and parents, screening, mental health consultation,and competence-building programs are discussed. Next, institutionally oriented prevention involving policy setting at the district, community, and state levels are outlined. The authors then point out issues related to adolescent cognitive development, the social milieu of the school, and law that must be addressed in any successful program. Several model programs and resources on this topic have been referenced throughout the paper.

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  • Adolescent Pregnancy: Implications for Prevention Strategies in Educational Settings

    Kathleen D. Paget

    pp. 570-580

    ABSTRACT: The need for pregnancy prevention programs in educational settings is recognized by a variety of professionals. With the rise in incidence figures, especially among pre-adolescent populations, involvement of school personnel in prevention programs has assumed increased importance. This article presents information regarding (a) correlates of pre-adolescent and adolescent pregnancy; (b)components of innovative school- and community-based programs; and (c)implications for school psychologists with respect to preventive programming in school settings. Large-scale social reform efforts are discussed as well as smaller-scale strategies within school systems and communities.

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  • Primary Prevention of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in School-Aged Populations

    Maurice J. Elias, Leslie R. Brandon

    pp. 581-592

    ABSTRACT: Schools repeatedly are called upon to incorporate mental health and competence-building programs into their curricula. To assist in the successful implementation of feasible programs, this article provides a conceptual and practical framework useful to school psychologists and other school-based personnel concerned with prevention of behavioral and emotional problems. From among the many existing programs, the authors cite those that are particularly realistic and viable and that can serve as models to would-be implementers. Three types of approaches are covered: person-centered, environment-centered, and those directed at both levels. Among the foci of the programs are improving coping skills, social support,and self-esteem; increasing supportive resources in the schools; and providing opportunities for students to enact a wider variety of social roles than presently is encouraged in schools. The article concludes with recommendations that prevention-oriented psychologists and other practitioners document and share resources and information on how to establish feasible, school-based programs.

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  • Preventing the Leading Killer of Children: The Role of the School Psychologist in Injury Prevention

    Lizette Peterson

    pp. 593-600

    ABSTRACT: Injuries are the leading cause of death in children. Currently, knowledge concerning unintentional injuries is evolving from superstitious beliefs that injuries are a product of fate, toward beliefs that environmental and, more recently, behavioral interventions can prevent injuries. The present article describes the targets,methods, and tactics of injury prevention. Then, some exemplary programs that may prevent injuries in children riding in automobiles, crossing streets,encountering strangers, exiting house fires, and reporting emergencies are presented. Next, comprehensive injury prevention programs are discussed. Finally,implementation of injury prevention programming by school psychologists is urged,and the challenges and rewards of such endeavors considered.

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  • Preventing Academic Failure

    Edward S. Shapiro

    pp. 601-613

    ABSTRACT: A number of intervention procedures have been developed which may offer potential as strategies to prevent academic failure. Each of these procedures has been empirically evaluated and field tested with large numbers of students.Included among these procedures are peer tutoring, the Adaptive Education Learning Model, Direct Instruction and Behavior Analysis, Strategy Training and other cognitive-behavioral techniques,and self-management. These procedures were developed based on research identifying the critical variables for acquisition and mastery of basic academic skills.Description and analysis of each technique is discussed. Finally, potential barriers to implementing prevention programs for academics kills are addressed.

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  • Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: An Analysis of Issues, Educational Programs, and Research Findings

    Deborah J. Tharinger, James J. Krivacska, Marsha Laye-McDonough, Linda Jamison, Gayle G. Vincent, An

    pp. 614-634

    ABSTRACT: Although the main targets of the effort toward the prevention of child sexual abuse need to be the conditions that cause and support it, a prominent and popular aspect of the prevention effort that has emerged in the past decade involves educational programs aimed at children. Most of these programs are implemented in the schools. The goals of these programs are to provide children with knowledge about sexual abuse, including ways to respond to abusive approaches, and to aid children in disclosing abuse if they have been victimized.Although well intentioned, there is no published research support for the conceptual assumptions (largely involving empowerment) upon which the prevention education programs are based and as yet, sparse empirical support for their effectiveness. Thus, the decision of a school district to adopt and implement a sexual abuse prevention education program is a serious one. school psychologists are in a key position to inform decision makers about the potential and the limitations of child sexual abuse prevention programs and to assist in developing, implementing, and evaluating more effective school-based programs.In addition to discussing general issues about the etiology of child sexual abuse and the relationship of etiology to prevention efforts, five questions are addressed:(a) What is the nature of child sexual abuse prevention programs? (b) Do prevention programs prevent children from being sexually abused? (c) Do prevention programs identify children who have been sexually abused by facilitating disclosure? (d) Is it fair and reasonable to expect children to participate in efforts to prevent their own sexual abuse? (e) What issues do school psychologists need to consider in developing, implementing, and evaluating school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs? Data are presented on the nature of child sexual abuse prevention programs from a research study that systematically evaluated 41 commercially available written materials on child sexual abuse prevention.

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  • Guest Editor's Comments (Research Methods)

    Timothy Z. Keith

    pp. 635-636

    As outlined in the first article in this miniseries, each subsequent issue of this miniseries will focus on a particular research question, and several researchers will discuss briefly how a particular research methodology can be used to answer that question (Keith,1988). In this issue, three researchers focus on the research question: What are the important, manipulable influences on school learning? One of NASP’s long term goals is “increased involvement of school psychologists with the educational attainment of all children . . .” (Elliott, 1986, p.7), a goal which implies that school psychologists should be involved in interventions designed to improve student learning. The focus on this research question is based on the assumption that if school psychologists are to devise such interventions they should understand which variables they can manipulate to influence student learning. Two of the articles in this issue (Kavale and Keith)focus on variables which seem to affect the learning of students in general or groups of students (e.g., high schoolstudents), and one (Wacker, Steege, & Berg) focuses on the influences for individual students.

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  • Using Path Analysis to Test the Importance of Manipulable Influences on School Learning

    Timothy Z. Keith

    pp. 637-643

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how path analysis could be used to answer the research question: Which are the important, manipulable influences on school learning? A general path model is developed based on variables common to theories of school learning. In order to illustrate the technique, that general model of school learning is further translated into a specific model designed to test the importance of the various influences on the achievement of high school students. The results of a path analysis of the specific model are briefly reported,using data from a large, longitudinal data set. Direct, indirect, and total effects of each variable of interest are calculated and interpreted.

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  • Using Meta-Analysis to Answer the Question: What Are the Important, Manipulable Influences on School Learning?

    Kenneth A. Kavale

    pp. 644-650

    ABSTRACT: This article describes how the methods of meta-analysis can be used to answer the question: What are the important, manipulable influences on school learning? The role of research synthesis is first discussed as well as the benefits of quantitative research synthesis. The methodology of meta-analysis—including problem formulation, sample selection, data analysis, data interpretation, and data reporting—is next discussed in relation to primary research methods. Finally,meta-analytic conclusions are described and their role in resolving conflicting findings is discussed.

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  • Use of Single-Case Designs to Evaluate Manipulable Influences on School Performance

    David P. Wacker, Mark Steege, Wendy K. Berg

    pp. 651-657

    ABSTRACT: In this manuscript, we provide two case examples that illustrate how single-case designs (alternating treatments, multiple baseline, and reversal) can be used to evaluate manipulable influences on school performance. In each case, an intervention plan is proposed for a student, and the success of the intervention is evaluated within a single-case design. The intervention plan is considered to constitute a hypothesis regarding the relation between the treatment and student behavior. By using single-case designs to evaluate this hypothesized relation, both the internal validity of the intervention and the applicability of the intervention to ongoing school programs can be established.

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  • Professional Judgment: A Critical Appraisal

    David W. Barnett

    pp. 658-672

    ABSTRACT: Professional judgment is the term used to describe personal processes that guide scientist and practitioner behavior in controversial and ambiguous circumstances. Practitioners are expected to base complex decisions within a “scientist-practitioner”framework. Widely analyzed with respect to diagnostic functions,this article focuses the analysis of professional judgment on the cognitions and behaviors of psychologists during assessment and intervention design. Following the examination of these components of professional judgment, (a) the analysis of alternatives in professional behaviors, (b) the identification of one’s “personal”model of practice, (c) sources of error, and (d) concepts and practices developed to study professional judgment are discussed.

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  • A Review of Selected Vocational Interest Inventories for Use by School Psychologists

    Dorothy Spitzer, Edward M. Levinson

    pp. 673-692

    ABSTRACT: With the passage of the Carl D. Perkins Act, school psychologists may increasingly find themselves involved in planning or implementing school-based vocational interest assessments. This article discusses some general considerations invocational interest assessment, reviews 10 popular vocational interest inventories,and provides recommendations for interest inventory use. The article concludes with a discussion of issues related to the selection and interpretation of interest inventories.

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  • Reviews of Psychodiagnostic Evaluation of Children: A Casebook Approach, Instructional Consultation

    Beth Doll, Howard M. Knoff

    pp. 693-697

    Psycho diagnostic Evaluation of Children is intended to serve as a textbook in child evaluation for students in applied psychology training programs.The authors argue effectively that child evaluation is much more than the sum of diagnosis,testing, report writing, and recommendations. they have written this text to provide an integrative experience that combines psychological theory,knowledge of contemporary issues, and assessment skill into effective child evaluation. The book is organized into two sections. The first quarter of the book is five chapters of text discussing issues related to child evaluation. The remaining three quarters is a collection of assessment protocols and data for 21 case examples. Instructors are advised to adopt a case-centered approach by using these cases to illustrate material discussed in the first five chapters.

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  • Author Index for Volume 17

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  • Citation Index for Volume 17

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