School Psychology Forum

The How of School Psychology Practice
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Fall 2011 )

Editor: Steven R. Shaw


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  • Treatment Integrity Assessment and Intervention by School-Based Personnel: Practical Applications Based on a Preliminary Study

    Lisa M. Hagermoser Sanetti, Lindsay M. Fallon, and Melissa A. Collier-Meek

    pp. 87-102

    ABSTRACT: Although treatment integrity data are necessary for assessing the intervention effectiveness and evaluating student progress, treatment integrity is rarely assessed in schools. Research results consistently indicate that without ongoing support, many teachers implement interventions with low-to-moderate and variable levels of treatment integrity. Systematic monitoring of treatment integrity data is an important component of problem-solving models, yet little guidance has been provided to practitioners about how to assess, evaluate, and promote treatment integrity. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe the process of designing a treatment integrity assessment, evaluation, and promotion plan that can be implemented by school-based personnel; (b) illustrate these treatment integrity procedures through a case study; and (c) provide suggestions and resources for promoting feasible and sustainable treatment integrity assessment.

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  • Increasing Responses to Verbal Greetings in Children

    Rebekah L. Hudock, Yuri Kashima-Ellingson, and Scott Bellini

    pp. 103-113

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study is to examine the differential effectiveness of two interventions, a Social Story and a generic story intervention, in increasing responses to verbal greetings in children with autism spectrum disorder. Effectiveness of the interventions was determined by children's response rates to adult verbal greetings within a clinic setting. Results indicate no differences between the two story interventions in increasing participants' responses to verbal greetings. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

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  • Test Item Modifications for English Language

    Stephanie Cawthon, Kristen Highley, and Rachel Leppo

    pp. 114-127

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to review the empirical research literature on the effects of test item modifications on test scores of English language learners (ELLs) and to provide a discussion of issues to consider in practice. For students who are ELLs, the format of standardized assessments may be a barrier to accurate measurement of their content-area knowledge and skills. Test item modifications, including simplifying the question stem, adding graphic organizers, or reducing the number of responses, are all approaches that seek to reduce barriers to reliable and valid assessment scores. A systematic review of relevant databases yielded six empirical articles that focused on the effects of modifications on test scores for ELLs. Although some of the modifications showed an interaction between student group and presence/nonpresence of the modification, the small sample sizes for student subgroups limited most findings to overall main effects across populations. Methodological issues, including variability in student characteristics within and across study samples and the use of multiple modifications, make overall statements about the research findings challenging. Implications of the findings from the review are discussed, including issues of target populations, definitions of a successful item modification, and factors that may affect the assessment process for ELLs.

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