School Psychology Forum

Volume 4 Issue 1
Volume 4, Issue 1 (Spring 2010 )

Editor: Ray Christner


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  • Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing Response to Intervention in Secondary Schools: Qualitative Perspectives of School Psychologists

    Frank J. Sansosti, Cathy Telzrow, and Amity Noltemeyer

    Abstract: Although there is increasing interest in the application of response to intervention (RTI) in secondary schools, research in this domain remains sparse. This study utilized qualitative focus group methodology to explore school psychologists’ perceptions regarding RTI implementation in secondary settings related to current barriers, facilitators, roles, and practices. School psychologists were chosen as the target audience due to their knowledge of intervention-based processes and systems-level change. Across two focus groups four themes emerged: systems characteristics, systems structure, evidence-based practice, and professional development needs. Each theme is explored in depth, followed by practical implications, limitations, and recommendations for further research. Because little is known regarding the implementation of RTI within middle and high schools, this study is viewed as a first step toward understanding what process variables practitioners and researchers need t

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  • Formative Evaluation in School Psychology: Fully Informing the Instructional Process

    Matthew K. Burns

    Abstract: Assessment has always been a foundation from which school psychology operates, but its primary purpose has changed. Implementation of response to intervention has again caused school psychology to examine its assessment practices and to become more formative in nature. This article defines formative and summative evaluation and presents the essential attribute of the former as the use of data to identify student needs and plan instruction to better meet those needs. Formative evaluation activities are delineated for the phases of instruction, and potential roles for school psychologists are described. Areas in need of future research are also suggested in order for a comprehensive assessment-to-intervention model to be developed and implemented.

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  • Practical Considerations for Selecting and Implementing Literacy Interventions for Use With English Language Learners

    Corey E. Ray-Subramanian and Gina Coffee

    Abstract: The continued increase in the portion of the U.S. prekindergarten to twelfth grade student population classified as English language learners (ELLs) has been well documented. School psychologists can take many important roles in serving this growing population of students, particularly in implementing comprehensive multitier response-tointervention frameworks for academic instruction. To support school psychologists in effectively meeting the needs of ELL students, particularly in the area of literacy development, we have highlighted five important factors to consider when selecting and implementing literacy interventions for ELLs: (a) the student’s language proficiency in his or her native language and English across the domains of speaking, listening, reading, and writing; (b) whether the student is experiencing difficulty with literacy skills or demonstrating typical features of the second language acquisition process; (c) the student’s prior and/or current literacy instru

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  • Extending Research on the Taped-Problems Intervention: Do Group Rewards Enhance Math Fact Fluency Development?

    Elizabeth McCallum, Ara J. Schmitt, Dana L. Schneider, Kristin Rezzetano, and Christopher H. Skinner

    Abstract: Within the current climate of educational reform, there is a great need for evidence-based academic interventions aimed at increasing achievement among schoolaged students. Particularly in the area of mathematics, few empirically validated, cost-, and time-efficient interventions are available for remediating basic math skills deficits. The current study compares the effectiveness of one such intervention, the taped-problems intervention (TP), with and without the addition of a group-rewards contingency. Results showed rapid increases in subtraction fact fluency between classrooms with no differences between the experimental (reward) and control (no reward) classrooms. Discussion focuses on implications of the findings and future adaptations of TP across settings and populations. Implications for practitioners are also offered.

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