Homework: A Guide for Parents
By Peg Dawson, EdD, NCSP
Seacoast Mental Health Center, Portsmouth, NH
Homework has been around as long as public schools have, and over the
years considerable research has been conducted regarding the efficacy
of homework practices. While the results are not uniform, most experts
on the topic have drawn some common conclusions.
Harris Cooper, a leading homework researcher, examined more than 100
studies on the effects of homework and concluded that there is little
evidence that homework at the elementary school level has an impact on
school achievement. Studies at the junior high school level have found
some modest benefits of homework, but studies of homework at the high
school level have found that it has clear benefits.
Despite mixed research on homework effects, many teachers believe that
assigning homework offers other benefits besides contributing to school
achievement. Homework teaches children how to take responsibility for
tasks and how to work independently. That is, homework helps children
develop habits of mind that will serve them well as
they proceed through school and, indeed, through life. Specifically,
homework helps children learn how to plan and organize tasks, manage
time, make choices, and problem solve, all skills that contribute to
effective functioning in the adult world of work and families.
Reasonable Homework Expectations
It is generally agreed that the younger the child, the less time the
child should be expected to devote to homework. A general rule of thumb
is that children do 10 minutes of homework for each grade level. Therefore,
first graders should be expected to do about 10 minutes of homework,
second graders 20 minutes, third graders 30 minutes, and so on. If your
child is spending more than 10 minutes per grade level on work at night,
then you may want to talk with your child's teacher about adjusting the
Strategies to Make Homework Go More Smoothly
There are two key strategies parents can draw on to reduce homework
hassles. The first is to establish clear routines around homework, including
when and where homework gets done and setting up daily schedules for
homework. The second is to build in rewards or incentives to use with
children for whom "good grades" is not a sufficient reward for doing
Tasks are easiest to accomplish when tied to specific routines. By establishing
daily routines for homework completion, you will not only make homework
go more smoothly, but you will also be fostering a sense of order your
child can apply to later life, including college and work.
Step 1. Find a location in the house where homework will
be done. The right location will depend on your child
and the culture of your family. Some children do best at a desk in
their bedroom. It is a quiet location, away from the hubbub of family
noise. Other children become too distracted by the things they keep
in their bedroom and do better at a place removed from those distractions,
like the dining room table. Some children need to work by themselves.
Others need to have parents nearby to help keep them on task and
to answer questions when problems arise. Ask your child where the
best place is to work. Both you and your child need to discuss pros
and cons of different settings to arrive at a mutually agreed upon
Step 2. Set up a homework center. Once you
and your child have identified a location, fix it up as a home office/homework
center. Make sure there is a clear workspace large enough to set out
all the materials necessary for completing assignments. Outfit the homework
center with the kinds of supplies your child is most likely to need,
such as pencils, pens, colored markers, rulers, scissors, a dictionary
and thesaurus, graph paper, construction paper, glue and cellophane tape,
lined paper, a calculator, spell checker, and, depending on the age and
needs of your child, a computer or laptop. If the homework center is
a place that will be used for other things (such as the dining room table),
then your child can keep the supplies in a portable crate or bin. If
possible, the homework center should include a bulletin board that can
hold a monthly calendar on which your child can keep track of longterm
assignments. Allowing children some leeway in decorating the homework
center can help them feel at home there, but you should be careful that
it does not become too cluttered with distracting materials.
Step 3. Establish a homework time. Your child
should get in the habit of doing homework at the same time every day.
The time may vary depending on the individual child. Some children need
a break right after school to get some exercise and have a snack. Others
need to start homework while they are still in a school mode (i.e., right
after school when there is still some momentum left from getting through
the day). In general, it may be best to get homework done either before
dinner or as early in the evening as the child can tolerate. The later
it gets, the more tired the child becomes and the more slowly the homework
Step 4. Establish a daily homework schedule. In
general, at least into middle school, the homework session should begin
with your sitting down with your child and drawing up a homework schedule.
You should review all the assignments and make sure your child understands
them and has all the necessary materials. Ask your child to estimate
how long it will take to complete each assignment. Then ask when each
assignment will get started. If your child needs help with any assignment,
then this should be determined at the beginning so that the start times
can take into account parent availability. A Daily Homework Planner is
included at the end of this handout and contains a place for identifying
when breaks may be taken and what rewards may be earned.
Many children who are not motivated by the enjoyment of doing homework
are motivated by the high grade they hope to earn as a result of doing
a quality job. Thus, the grade is an incentive, motivating the child
to do homework with care and in a timely manner. For children who are
not motivated by grades, parents will need to look for other rewards
to help them get through their nightly chores. Incentive systems fall
into two categories: simple and elaborate.
Simple incentive systems. The simplest incentive
system is reminding the child of a fun activity to do when
homework is done. It may be a favorite television show, a chance
to spend some time with a video or computer game, talking on the telephone
or instant messaging, or playing a game with a parent. This system of
withholding fun things until the drudgery is over is sometimes called
Grandma's Law because grandmothers often use it quite effectively ("First
take out the trash, then you can have chocolate chip cookies."). Having
something to look forward to can be a powerful incentive to get the hard
work done. When parents remind children of this as they sit down at their
desks they may be able to spark the engine that drives the child to stick
with the work until it is done.
Elaborate incentive systems. These involve
more planning and more work on the part of parents but in some cases
are necessary to address more significant homework problems. More complex
incentives systems might include a structure for earning points that
could be used to "purchase" privileges or rewards or a system that provides
greater reward for accomplishing more difficult homework tasks. These
systems work best when parents and children together develop them. Giving
children input gives them a sense of control and ownership, making the
system more likely to succeed. We have found that children are generally
realistic in setting goals and deciding on rewards and penalties when
they are involved in the decision-making process.
Building in breaks. These are good for the
child who cannot quite make it to the end without a small reward en route.
When creating the daily homework schedule, it may be useful with these
children to identify when they will take their breaks. Some children
prefer to take breaks at specific time intervals (every 15 minutes),
while others do better when the breaks occur after they finish an activity.
If you use this approach, you should discuss with your child how long
the breaks will last and what will be done during the breaks (get a snack,
call a friend, play one level on a video game). The Daily Homework Planner
includes sections where breaks and end-of-homework rewards can be identified.
Building in choice. This can be an effective
strategy for parents to use with children who resist homework. Choice
can be incorporated into both the order in which the child agrees to
complete assignments and the schedule they will follow to get the work
done. Building in choice not only helps motivate children but can also
reduce power struggles between parents and children.
Developing Incentive Systems
Step 1. Describe the problem behaviors. Parents
and children decide which behaviors are causing problems at homework
time. For some children putting homework off to the last minute is the
problem; for others, it is forgetting materials or neglecting to write
down assignments. Still others rush through their work and make careless
mistakes, while others dawdle over assignments, taking hours to complete
what should take only a few minutes. It is important to be as specific
as possible when describing the problem behaviors. The problem behavior
should be described as behaviors that can be seen or heard; for instance, complains
about homework or rushes through homework, making many mistakes are
better descriptors than has a bad attitude or is lazy.
Step 2. Set a goal. Usually the goal relates
directly to the problem behavior. For instance, if not writing down assignments
is the problem, the goal might be: "Joe will write down his assignments
in his assignment book for every class."
Step 3. Decide on possible rewards and penalties. Homework
incentive systems work best when children have a menu of rewards to choose
from, since no single reward will be attractive for long. We recommend
a point system in which points can be earned for the goal behaviors and
traded in for the reward the child wants to earn. The bigger the reward,
the more points the child will need to earn it. The menu should include
both larger, more expensive rewards that may take a week or a month to
earn and smaller, inexpensive rewards that can be earned daily. It may
also be necessary to build penalties into the system. This is usually
the loss of a privilege (such as the chance to watch a favorite TV show
or the chance to talk on the telephone to a friend).
Once the system is up and running, and if you find your child is earning
more penalties than rewards, then the program needs to be revised so
that your child can be more successful. Usually when this kind of system
fails, we think of it as a design failure rather than the failure of
the child to respond to rewards. It may be a good idea if you are having
difficulty designing a system that works to consult a specialist, such
as a school psychologist or counselor, for assistance.
Step 4. Write a homework contract. The contract
should say exactly what the child agrees to do and exactly what the parents'
roles and responsibilities will be. When the contract is in place, it
should reduce some of the tension parents and kids often experience around
homework. For instance, if part of the contract is that the child will
earn a point for not complaining about homework, then if the child does complain,
this should not be cause for a battle between parent and child: the child
simply does not earn that point. Parents should also be sure to praise
their children for following the contract. It will be important for parents
to agree to a contract they can live with; that is, avoiding penalties
they are either unable or unwilling to impose (e.g., if both parents
work and are not at home, they cannot monitor whether a child is beginning
homework right after school, so an alternative contract may need to be
We have found that it is a rare incentive system that works the first
time. Parents should expect to try it out and redesign it to work the
kinks out. Eventually, once the child is used to doing the behaviors
specified in the contract, the contract can be rewritten to work on another
problem behavior. Your child over time may be willing to drop the use
of an incentive system altogether. This is often a long-term goal, however,
and you should be ready to write a new contract if your child slips back
to bad habits once a system is dropped.
Parents often ask how they can develop one kind of system for one child
in the family and not for all children, since it may seem to be "rewarding" children
with problems while neglecting those without. Most siblings understand
this process if it is explained to them carefully. If there are problems,
however, parents have several choices: (a) Set up a similar system for
other children with appropriate goals (every child has something they
could be working to improve), (b) make a more informal arrangement by
promising to do something special from time to time with the other children
in the family so they do not feel left out, or (c) have the child earn
rewards that benefit the whole family (e.g., eating out at a favorite
Adaptations and Further Support
Suggestions provided in this handout will need to be adapted to the
particular age of your child. Greater supervision and involvement on
the part of parents is the norm with children during the elementary school
years, while, by high school, most parents find they can pull back and
let their children take more control over homework schedules. Middle
school is often the turning point, and parents will need to make decisions
about how involved to be in homework based on the developmental level
of their children. If problems arise that seem intractable at any age,
consult your child's teacher or a school psychologist.
Canter, L. (1993). Homework without tears. New York: HarperPerennial.
Dawson, P. (2001). Homework problems and solutions. Unpublished
manual. For information on obtaining a copy, contact Peg Dawson at her
e-mail address (Please be aware that e-mail addresses may change): firstname.lastname@example.org
Dawson, P., & Guare, R. (2003). Executive skills in children
and adolescents: A practical guide to assessment and interventions. New
York: Guilford. ISBN: 1572309288.
Romain, T., & Verdick, E. (1997). How to do homework without
throwing up. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing. ISBN: 1575420112.
Click here to download the homework planner
and incentive sheet.
Peg Dawson, EdD, NCSP, is a school psychologist with the
Center for Learning Attention Disorders of the Seacoast Mental Health Center in Portsmouth, NH,
and a past president of the National Association of School Psychologists.