This handout from the National Association of School Psychologists
may be used by other organizations without receiving specific permission
as long as it is reprinted or posted to websites verbatim, credits NASP,
and includes links to the NASP website. More in-depth information is
available now and additional information on related topics will be posted
over the next few days.
Cultural Perspectives on
Trauma and Critical Response
Adapted by Kris Sieckert,
NEAT Central Region Facilitator
This article is a condensed version of Chapter 7 of the National Organization
for Victim Assistance (NOVA) Community Response Team Training Manual.
It was written by Kris Sieckert with the permission of Dr. Marlene Young,
NOVA Executive Director.
Using the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language to
define culture, we find the following: "The totality of socially
transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions and all other
products of human work and thought characteristic of a community or
population." In other words, cultures are a means for sharing wisdom
and skills that are necessary to the survival of the community, the
individual and the community area of humanity. Therefore, our culture
shapes how we identify and interpret the threat of traumatic events
and how we manifest our distress in response to these events.
It is important that crisis responders attempt to understand their own
cultural identities as they reach out to serve others. NOVA identifies
the following as sources of cultural identities:
"Location in Life"
NOVA also identifies the following concepts and attitudes shaped by
Crisis responders are encouraged to use the lists to identify important
sources of cultural identity in their lives, to initially access the
cultural backgrounds of individual victims or groups they serve, and
to find significant commonalities in order to establish a basis of communication.
Interpreting Traumatic Events
Culture influences what type of threat is perceived as traumatic and
how we interpret the meaning of the traumatic event. Culture also influences
how individuals and communities express traumatic reactions. While reactions
to trauma seem to be common throughout all cultures and based in the
physiology of human beings, manifestations of responses may differ significantly.
Culture forms a context through which the traumatized individuals or
communities view and judge their own response. If people think that
the society around them will not accept them as victims, there is a
tendency to withdraw and be silent. Culture may affect the response
of immediately "non-traumatized to trauma" and the traumatized.
This is a critical issue for many people who are victims. Their own
culture or the culture in which they exist may reject or stigmatize
them and may be perceived as an additional injury. Cultures may help
define healthy pathways to new lives after trauma. The routines and
traditions may aid survivors of a tragedy in feeling re-oriented or
rendering life predictable.
Trauma and culture are particularly complicated today. Multiple identifications
require complex reasoning for negotiating the environment. With an increase
in life stress and a decrease in the capacity to screen and moderate
the impact of a trauma, cultural traumas can be transmitted across time
and generation as a bond for survival.
Accommodating and Integrating Cultural Standards
Prior to cross-cultural work, education is needed about a culture's
routines, traditions and impact of family relationships. Be prepared
to accommodate and integrate such cultural standards into crisis response
work. Attention should be paid to the following issues:
Geography, climate and environment
History of a culture
Language of culture
Routines and rituals of culture
No matter what the preconditions to introduction to other cultures,
caregivers should be prepared to convey respect and good will:
- Say "Hello" and request the opportunity to talk with people.
- Acknowledge differences and apologize for discrepancies between
your behaviors and the people with whom you are talking.
- Be aware of your own cultural biases and try to be non-judgmental
with those with whom you interact.
- Always say "please" and "thank you" when appropriate;
always request permission to do things.
Protocol for Crisis Work Across Cultures
Orientation to caregiving interventions:
Participate in access rituals. These often involve ceremony,
food and expressions of good will.
Explain purpose of intervention and the need for reciprocal
questions. Many cultures find questions intrusive. Yet, for the caregiver,
they may be essential in the establishment of understanding. Questions
and answers are often the only way to clarify differences in language,
customs and unconscious behaviors.
Express an appreciation and respect for the culture's strengths
in coping with trauma. Every culture has means to deal with trauma and
can explain those means. Their understanding of trauma and its implications
is inherent in their eventual integration of a tragedy into their lives.
Express a willingness to learn about the ethnic group involved.
One method to convey this is to ask, "If I were a victim of this
trauma, how would you expect me to deal with it?"
Acknowledge your limitations and differences. These may include
the inability to speak or understand the language, confusion over certain
customs or rituals or spiritual understandings.
Establish your competence in understanding trauma's impact whether
or not you understand the traumatic impact of an event or the meaning
of that impact.
Deal with immediate environmental problems such as financial
loss, secure shelter, family conflict, etc. that the individual is having
difficulty handling by himself.
Assist the survivors or victims with financial resources or
compensation, if possible.
Help the survivors focus on something tangible that they can
accomplish over the next few days.
Crisis Intervention with Cultural Focus:
Search for the meaning of suffering and pain relevant to the
dominant cultural group involved.
Search for the meaning of death in the culture.
Search for the meaning of life in the culture.
Make an effort to acknowledge your limitations with language
or other communication concerns, and ask the survivors to tell you if
you say something wrong or do something offensive.
Ask survivors to tell their story and talk to them about the
Ask survivors if their families should be present during discussions
or if they would like to have clergy members present.
Ask survivors if they would like to go to a place of worship
or if there are any ceremonies or rituals that are particularly directed
at crisis in their culture.
Ask survivors to describe what they would like you to do to
be of assistance to them and then tell them truthfully what you can
or can't do.
Useful cross-cultural interventions include: reduction of isolation,
relaxation techniques, meditation, education about crisis in culturally
relevant terms, helping individuals to develop control, increase self-esteem
Be aware of culturally specific communication techniques such
as the use of eye contact, the integration of food and drink in discussions,
the pace of conversation, body language and so forth.
Hints for Helping:
Dress appropriately: Men should wear suits and women should wear
dresses in most cultures. An outside team of crisis responders may convey
their respects through respectful clothes.
Establish commonality with survivors through access rituals
and mutual interests: Eat what is offered; drink what is offered. Ask
about family, friends, pets, plants and loved ones.
Search for linguistic equivalency even if you do not know the
language of the culture.
Greet and say good-bye to survivors in their own language.
Allow survivors to direct you through cultural protocols and
follow their directions.
Participate in defined ritual, as allowed or requested.
Apologize when you do something wrong.
Clearly define your objectives and give references of specific
other situations that are similar to this one in which you were helpful.
Find out and use appropriate body language.
Bring a gift of commemoration.
Be aware of spiritual beliefs in the culture.
Ensure that written communications are either in the appropriate
language or are linguistically and structurally correct to facilitate
Young, M. (1998). Community response team training manual (second edition).
NOVA: Washington, DC.
Kris Sieckert, NCSP, is a school psychologist in Oconomowoc, WI
and Central Region Facilitator for NASP/NEAT. She worked with the NOVA/NEAT
Team in Springfield, OR after the school shootings there in May 1998.