School Psychology Review

General Issue
Volume 46, Issue 3 (2017)

Editor: Amy L. Reschly


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  • Affective Teacher–Student Relationships and Students’ Engagement and Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Update and Test of the Mediating Role of Engagement

    Debora L. Roorda, Suzanne Jak, Marjolein Zee, Frans J. Oort & Helma M. Y. Koomen

    pp. 239-261

    Abstract. The present study took a meta-analytic approach to investigate whether students’ engagement acts as a mediator in the association between affective teacher–student relationships and students’ achievement. Furthermore, we examined whether results differed for primary and secondary school and whether similar results were found in a longitudinal subsample. Our sample consisted of 189 studies (249,198 students in total) that included students from preschool to high school. A distinction was made between positive relationship aspects (e.g., closeness) and negative relationship aspects (e.g., conflict). Meta-analytic structural equation modeling showed that, overall, the associations between both positive relationships and achievement and negative relationships and achievement were partially mediated by student engagement. Subsequent analyses revealed that mediation is applicable to both primary and secondary school. Only the direct association between positive relationships and engagement was stronger in secondary school than in primary school. Finally, partial mediation was also found in the longitudinal subsample.

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  • Evaluating and Comparing the Effects of Group Contingencies on Mathematics Accuracy in a First-Grade Classroom: Class AverageCriteria Versus Unknown Small-Group Average Criteria

    Katelyn C. Scott, Christopher H. Skinner, Tara C. Moore, Merilee McCurdy, Dennis Ciancio & David F. Cihak

    pp. 262–271

    Abstract. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate and compare the effects of two group contingency interventions on mathematics assignment accuracy in an intact first-grade classroom. Both an interdependent contingency with class-average criteria (16 students) and a dependent contingency with criteria based on the average of a smaller, unknown, randomly selected group of students (4 students) were applied. For both contingencies, rewards and criteria were randomly selected and unknown to students. Results showed immediate,sustained, and meaningful improvements in mathematics assignment accuracy (from a class average of 64% to aclass average above 83%) across both contingencies, with little differences between the two interventions. Social validity data suggest that the two teachers and the majority of the students preferred the small-group contingency.Discussion focuses on applied implications of the current results and directions for future research, including investigating side effects and idiosyncratic effects.

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  • Interrelations of Growth in Letter Naming and Sound Fluency in Kindergarten and Implications for Subsequent Reading Fluency

    Nathan H. Clemens, Mark H. C. Lai, Mack Burke & Jiun-Yu Wu

    pp. 272–287

    Abstract. Although letter naming fluency (LNF) and letter sound fluency (LSF) measures are widely available to educators for assessing early literacy skills of kindergarten children, better understanding of the contributions of these skills to reading development can help improve the interpretation of LNF and LSF data for instructional decisions. This study investigated the interrelations of growth in LNF and LSF across the kindergarten year and their unique roles in predicting later reading fluency. Piecewise parallel-process growth models indicated that although LNF and LSF were highly correlated at kindergarten entry, fall LNF status was positively predictive of LSF growth across the fall. Bidirectional effects were present, as initial LSF was also a positive predictor of LNF growth across the fall; however, its effects were not as strong as those of initial LNF on LSF growth. More importantly, both initial status and growth in LNF and LSF were uniquely predictive of first-grade reading fluency, indicating the independent effects of each on subsequent text reading skills. Indirect effects were also observed for kindergarten LNF and LSF growth on reading fluency in second and third grades. Implications for kindergarten assessment and instruction are discussed.

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  • Cyber Victimization in High School: Measurement, Overlap With Face-to-Face Victimization, and Associations With Social–Emotional Outcomes

    Christina Flynn Brown, Michelle Kilpatrick Demaray, Jaclyn E. Tennant & Lyndsay N. Jenkins

    pp. 288–303

    Abstract. Cyber victimization is a contemporary problem facing youth and adolescents (Diamanduros, Downs, & Jenkins, 2008; Kowalski & Limber, 2007). It is imperative for researchers and school personnel to understand the associations between cyber victimization and student social–emotional outcomes. This article explores (a) gender differences in rates of cyber victimization, (b) overlap between traditional and cyber victimization, (c) differences in social–emotional outcomes across victimization classes, and (d) associations among cyber victimization and social–emotional risk, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems while controlling for traditional victimization among 1,152 high school students. Boys reported significantly higher rates of cyber victimization than did girls. Ten percent of students reported experiencing low levels of both cyber and traditional victimization (low dual), 3% of students reported experiencing moderate levels of both cyber and traditional victimization (moderate dual), and 1% of students reported high levels of both types of victimization (high dual). Three percent of students reported experiencing traditional victimization but not cyber victimization (traditional). There were significant differences in social and emotional problems among youth involved in victimization in various groups (i.e., uninvolved, traditional, low dual, moderate dual, and high dual). Lastly, cyber victimization significantly predicted variance in social–emotional risk and internalizing problems above and beyond that predicted by traditional victimization.

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  • Teacher Self-Efficacy and Intentions to Use Antibullying Practices as Predictors of Children’s Peer Victimization

    Samantha J. Gregus, Juventino Hernandez Rodriguez, Freddie A. Pastrana, James T. Craig, Samuel D. McQuillin & Timothy A. Cavell

    pp. 304–319

    Abstract. Teachers are key players in efforts to address school bullying and peer victimization. Recent studies found that teachers’ responses to peer victimization can vary based on their beliefs and attitudes. We examined relations among teacher self-efficacy, teachers’ intentions to use recommended antibullying practices, and peer victimization as rated by teachers and students. In Study 1 (N = 79), we examined the internal structure, reliability, and initial validity of the Teacher Efficacy for Antibullying Scale (TEAS), a new measure of teachers’ self-efficacy regarding school bullying and peer victimization. In Study 2, we used data from elementary school teachers (N = 34) and their students (N = 654) to test whether the interaction between teacher self-efficacy and intentions to use recommended antibullying practices predicted children’s peer victimization. We also tested whether the relation between teacher self-efficacy and children’s peer victimization was curvilinear. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), we found support for a curvilinear relation between teacher self-efficacy and children’s peer victimization that was moderated by teachers’ intentions to use antibullying practices; except in classrooms where teachers held very strong intentions to use best practices, children’s peer victimization was greater in classrooms where teachers reported either very low or very high self-efficacy relative to classrooms where teachers had more moderate levels of self-efficacy. Discussed are the research and practice implications of these findings for teacher-based antibullying training and intervention.

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  • Research Brief: Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading Progress Monitoring: The Importance of Growth Magnitude and Goal Setting in Decision Making

    Ethan R. Van Norman, Theodore J. Christ & Kirsten W. Newell

    pp. 320–328

    Abstract. Research regarding the technical adequacy of growth estimates from curriculum-based measurement of reading progress monitoring data suggests that current decision-making frameworks are likely to yield inaccurate recommendations unless data are collected for extensive periods of time. Instances where data may not need to be collected for long periods to make defensible decisions are presented. Recommendations to collect data for upwards of 3 months may be appropriate for students whose rate of improvement (ROI) approximates the criterion to which their performance is being compared. A framework is presented to help evaluate whether a student’s ROI is substantially discrepant from an expected rate of growth (i.e., goal line). A spreadsheet program was created that used user-specified parameters for goal line magnitude, dataset variability, and data collection duration, in order to identify critical ROIs to determine whether students were making adequate progress with different levels of certainty. Analyses suggest that decisions may be feasible sooner than previously thought, particularly when growth is highly discrepant from the goal line and variability in the data is limited. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.

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  • Guidelines for Authors

    pp. 329–331

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  • Accepted Manuscripts for Forthcoming Issues

    pp. 332

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