School Psychology Review

General Issue
Volume 45, Issue 4 (2016)

Editor: Amy L. Reschly


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  • Effect Size for Token Economy Use in Contemporary Classroom Settings: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

    Denise A. Soares, Judith R. Harrison, Kimberly J. Vannest, & Susan S. McClelland

    pp. 379-399

    Abstract. Recent meta-analyses of the effectiveness of token economies (TEs) report insufficient quality in the research or mixed effects in the results. This study examines the contemporary (post-Public Law 94-142) peer-reviewed published single-case research evaluating the effectiveness of TEs. The results are stratified across quality of demonstrated functional relationship using a nonparametric effect size (ES) that controls for undesirable baseline trends in the analysis. In addition, moderators (i.e., classroom setting, age of participant, outcomes, use of response cost, and use of verbal cueing) were analyzed. Eighty-eight AB phase contrasts were calculated from 28 studies (1980 –2014) representing 90 participants and produced a weighted mean ES of 0.82 (SE [1] 0.03, 95% CI [0.77, 0.88]). Strong quality produced a combined weighted mean ES of 0.85 (SE [1] 0.642, 95% CI [0.74, 0.97]). Moderator analyses revealed that a TE was slightly more effective for youth between the ages of 6 and 15 years than for children between the ages of 3 and 5 years or when used with behavioral goals in comparison to academic goals. However, no difference was found when implemented in general or special education settings or with the inclusion of response cost or verbal cueing.

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  • General Versus Specific Methods for Classifying U.S. Students’ Bullying Involvement: Investigating Classification Agreement, Prevalence Rates, and Concurrent Validity

    Tyler L. Renshaw, Kelsie N. Hammons, & Anthony J. Roberson

    pp. 400-416

    Abstract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the differential functionality of 2 general self-report items compared with 18 specific self-report items for classifying U.S. students’ bullying involvement. First, by use of four samples from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC; 1997–1998, N = 15,686; 2001–2002, N =14,817; 2005–2006, N = 9,227; and 2009–2010, N = 12,642), prevalence rates of bullying involvement were calculated with classifications derived from general and specific items. Next, by use of only the most recent HBSC sample (2009 –2010), concurrent validity of the classifications derived from general and specific items was investigated by exploring classification agreement as well as the association of each classification with self-reported student well-being indicators (i.e., life satisfaction, overall health, attitude toward school, academic performance, and general attention). Findings indicate that both bullying involvement classifications yielded drastically different prevalence rates but that trends for both methods suggested bullying involvement is decreasing over time. Results also show that general and specific classification methods had poor agreement but that there were no substantive differences in their associations with student well-being indicators. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

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  • Using the Expectancy-Value Theory of Motivation to Predict Behavioral and Emotional Risk Among High School Students

    Bridget V. Dever

    pp. 417–433

    Abstract. Within the expectancy-value framework, much work has been done linking expectancies and task values to academic outcomes such as performance, persistence, and choice. Research on the associations between student motivation (including efficacy and task values) and behavioral and emotional problems, however, is nascent. The present study examined a structural equation model using efficacy, utility value, attainment value, and cost to predict internalizing risk and hyperactivity– distractibility risk within a sample of 5,126 high school students (76.5% African American) in a high-needs school district. The results indicated that efficacy negatively predicted both domains of risk, attainment value negatively predicted hyperactivity– distractibility risk only, and cost positively predicted both domains of risk. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed, including the relative importance of cost in the prediction of behavioral and emotional risk.

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  • Conceptualizing High School Students’ Mental Health Through a Dual-Factor Model

    Shannon M. Suldo, Amanda Thalji-Raitano, Sarah M. Kiefer & John M. Ferron

    pp. 434–457

    Abstract. Mental health is increasingly viewed as a complete state of being, consisting of the absence of psychopathology and the presence of positive factors such as subjective well-being (SWB). This cross-sectional study analyzed multi-method and multi-source data for 500 high school students (ages 14–18 years, M = 15.27 years, SD=1.0 years) to examine how mental health, defined in a dual-factor model, relates to adjustment. Relevant outcomes within self-determination theory include academic adjustment, social adjustment, identity development, and physical health. A dual-factor model was supported through identification of four groups: complete mental health (62.2% of sample), vulnerable (11.4%), symptomatic but content (11.4%), and troubled (15%). Results extend the importance of high SWB to optimal functioning during middle adolescence, as students with complete mental health (high SWB, low psychopathology) reported better outcomes than vulnerable students (low SWB despite low psychopathology) in terms of academic attitudes, perceptions of overall physical health, social support and satisfaction with romantic relationships, and identity development. Among students with elevated psychopathology, those with high SWB (symptomatic-but-content group) reported greater academic self-perceptions, perceived physical health, social support and satisfaction with romantic relationships (as well as less peer victimization), and identity development than their peers with low SWB (troubled group). Main effects of SWB in multilevel models that controlled for psychopathology and demographic covariates further illustrate the additive value of SWB in mental health assessments in terms of explaining unique variance in student adjustment in all four domains examined.

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  • Predictive Validity of a Student Self-Report Screener of Behavioral and Emotional Risk in an Urban High School

    Erin Dowdy, Leigh Harrell-Williams, Bridget V. Dever, Michael J. Furlong, Stephanie Moore, Tara Raines & Randy W. Kamphaus

    pp. 458–476

    Abstract. Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children- 2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Student Form (BESS Student) in the authentic context of an urban high school that conducted universal screening over 3 years. Multivariate regression, sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to examine the BESS Student scores’ prediction of internalizing symptoms. BESS Student scores were able to explain a significant proportion of the variance in internalizing symptoms concurrently, but predictive validity estimates decreased over time. Significant gender differences were present; BESS Student scores were better able to predict internalizing symptoms for females. Implications for research and practice involving screening for behavioral and emotional problems are discussed.

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  • Establishing Interventions via a Theory-Driven Single Case Design Research Cycle

    Stephen P. Kilgus, T. Chris Riley-Tillman & Thomas R. Kratochwill

    pp. 477–498

    Abstract. Recent studies have suggested single case design (SCD) intervention research is subject to publication bias, wherein studies are more likely to be published if they possess large or statistically significant effects and use rigorous experimental methods. The nature of SCD and the purposes for which it might be used could suggest that large effects and rigorous methods should not always be expected. The purpose of the current paper is to propose and describe a theorydriven cycle of SCD intervention research. The proposed SCD-specific cycle serves several purposes including (a) defining the purposes for which SCD research might be adopted, (b) specifying the types of evidence to be collected in establishing an intervention for applied use, and (c) illustrating the phases of SCD-based intervention research (i.e., development, efficacy, effectiveness, contextualization, and implementation). The proposed model is intended to serve as an intermediary between theory and research, facilitating the consideration of theory-driven expectations when selecting particular SCDs (e.g., reversal, multiple baseline) and interpreting SCD data. Next steps and future directions for research are included.

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  • Guidelines for Authors

    p. 499

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  • Accepted Manuscripts for Forthcoming Issues

    p. 503

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