School Psychology Forum

General Issue
Volume 10, Issue 4 (Winter 2016)

Editor: Steven R. Shaw


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  • Research to Practice in School Psychology: Challenges Ahead and the Role of NASP’s School Psychology Forum

    By Steven R. Shaw

    pp. 340–348

    ABSTRACT: The goal of School Psychology Forum is to promote and disseminate research-topractice scholarship for the benefit of school psychologists in their clinical practice. This goal has evolved from a desired practice to a mandatory component of any clinical practice. Research to practice is of importance as the concept of evidence-based practice is codified in federal law, American Psychological Association standards for practice, and the Canadian Psychological Association standards for practice. Although there is a consensus that evidence-based practice presents a positive direction for service delivery in school psychology, there remains a stubborn and significant gap between research and clinical practice. Reasons for this gap are identified. In addition, suggestions for improving the credibility, robustness, and approaches to evaluation and implementation of clinical research are provided. School Psychology Forum is an excellent outlet for the publication of credible studies with strong research design to narrow the gap between research and practice.

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  • Response Repetition as an Error-Correction Strategy for Teaching Subtraction Facts

    By Jennifer L. Reynolds, Daniel D. Drevon, Bradley Schafer & Kaitlyn Schwartz

    pp. 349–358

    ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of response repetition as an error-correction strategy in teaching subtraction facts to three students with learning difficulties. Written response repetition (WRR) and oral response repetition (ORR) were compared using an alternating treatments design nested in a multiple baseline design across participants. Introduction of the error-correction procedures resulted in increases in subtraction facts mastered and correct responding relative to baseline for all participants. All participants mastered more facts in the WRR condition, with varying levels of differentiation. Two of three participants demonstrated higher levels of correct responding in the WRR condition. Results are discussed in terms of consistency with other studies of response repetition and implications for school-based personnel developing and delivering intensive academic interventions.

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  • Formative Assessment and the Classroom Teacher: Recommendations for School Psychologists

    By Stacy A. S. Williams & Katherine Stenglein

    pp. 359–370

    ABSTRACT: In order for school psychologists to effectively work with teachers, it is important to understand not only the context in which they work, but to understand how educators consider and subsequently use data. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine how formative assessments are conceptualized in teacher training and pedagogical literature, and to compare this information to how such assessments are understood within school psychology literature. The goal is to identify common ground between the two perspectives, so that mutual talking points might be identified, thereby serving to facilitate the working relationships of teachers and school psychologists.

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  • Perceptions of Leadership Practices of School Psychologists: Views of Multiple Stakeholders

    By Kristine Augustyniak, Lisa Kilanowski & Gregory J. Privitera

    pp. 371–385

    ABSTRACT: Leadership ability is necessary in the work of school psychologists, yet formal investigation of leadership processes engaged in by school psychologists has not occurred in the field. Likewise, perceptions of the leadership ability of school psychologists by other key school professionals, such as administrators and teachers, remain undocumented. This pilot study seeks to detail, for the first time, observed leadership processes among school psychologists, as well as system and external factors that may have an impact on them. These findings will lend to the development of models to further cultivate effective leadership training and practice of school psychologists.

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  • Understanding the Gender Gap in Mathematics Achievement: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Stereotype Threat

    By Denise Schwery, David Hulac & Amy Schweinle

    pp. 386–396

    ABSTRACT: This literature review provides school psychologists with an understanding of the important issues related to the gender gap in mathematics achievement. The extant literature suggests that girls tend to receive lower scores than boys on standardized math tests, but in general these differences tend to be small. However, girls have better classroom grades and outperform boys on curriculum-based measures. One of the key factors that account for these differences involves self-efficacy. The role of self-efficacy in mathematics achievement is discussed as well as relevant recommendations for school psychologists.

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  • Twenty Percent of the Variance Between Students in Academic Engagement Is Explained by Grade Level, Gender, Family Affluence, Anxiety, and Social Support

    By Gabrielle Wilcox, Jocelyn McQuay, Anita Blackstaffe, Rosemary Perry& Penelope Hawe

    pp. 397–409

    ABSTRACT: Understanding what contributes to academic engagement is important to effectively support students. This study examines the relationship between sociodemographic factors, anxiety, social support, and academic engagement in elementary and junior high school students. Students in grades 5–9 (N 5 1,904) completed self-reports measuring academic engagement, anxiety, social support from family and friends, and social support at school. Results indicated that (a) 20% of the variance between students’ academic engagement is explained by grade level, gender, family affluence, social support and anxiety; (b) social support variables were predictors of academic achievement for both elementary and junior high school students; (c) elementary students reported higher levels of academic engagement; and (d) gender and anxiety levels were predictors of academic engagement for junior high students. This study emphasizes the ongoing importance of cultivating positive social supports for children. However, it is vital to identify the 80% of the variance between students in academic engagement that is currently not explained by the traditional factors under scrutiny. This will likely require a major rethink of models of research and intervention and more observational methods of investigation.Correction: Coauthor Penelope Hawe's affiliation is listed incorrectly on this article. Her full affiliation is O’Brien Institute of Public Health at the University of Calgary, and the Menzies Centre for Health Policy and the NHMRC Australian Prevention Partnership Centre at the University of Sydney.

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  • Identifying School Psychologists’ Intercultural Sensitivity

    By Olivia E. Puyana & Oliver W. Edwards

    pp. 410–421

    ABSTRACT: School psychologists are encouraged to analyze their intercultural sensitivity because they may be subject to personal attitudes and beliefs that pejoratively influence their work with students and clients who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD). However, gaps remain in the literature regarding whether school psychologists are prepared to effectively, efficiently, and equitably educate students considered CLD. Although intercultural sensitivity is described as advancing educators’ ability to competently educate CLD students, a paucity of empirical research is available about intercultural sensitivity and school psychology. This study is a first- step endeavor to fill the research gap by examining a random and representative sample of 148 school psychologists in Florida using the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS). The findings suggest the ISS can help school psychologists evaluate their intercultural sensitivity. The findings also suggest school psychologists’ intercultural sensitivity differs based on demographic variables. Recommendations for consultation practices with the ISS are provided.

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  • Ad Hoc Reviewers, 2016

    p. 422

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