Volume 15, Issue 1 (1986)
Estimating Percent of Time and Rate via Direct Observation: A Suggested Observational Procedure and Format
Richard A. Saudergas, Francis E. Lentz, Jr.
ABSTRACT: Numerous sources have called for increased use of direct observational measurement procedures by educational practitioners and researchers. Observational data may include measures of natural parameters of behavior such as rate and duration,or data from various forms of time sampling. The former type of data, while more desirable, are costly especially when attempting to concurrently measure many behaviors. On the other hand, time sampling, while logistically easier for observers,may inaccurately estimate natural parameters. There are compelling reasons for collecting data simultaneously on multiple behaviors during classroom assessment and research. Using development of a structured observation code, the SECOS, as an example, decision rules and procedures for the constructing of standardized multiple behavior observational systems that provide accurate, reliable data for school based assessment, intervention, and research are described. Reliability and validity data from the SECOS, as well as data on training observers to use it are provided.
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