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NASP Home NASP Publications School Psychology Review (SPR) Volume 43 Issue 2 (2014) Tier 2 Intervention for At-Risk First...
Volume 43, Issue 2 (2014)

Tier 2 Intervention for At-Risk First-Grade Students Within a Response-to-Intervention Model of Support

pp. 179—184

Clarke et al. (2014) provide a persuasive case for the role of a theory-of-change model to guide the nature of curriculum development work embodying both a theoretical and empirical knowledge foundation. They illuminate the components of their model, which were used to design and test the efficacy of a Tier 2 intervention for students who met their criteria for at-risk identification of mathematics difficulties. Their model of change is well grounded in the research findings regarding effective instructional delivery practices for struggling students, as well as critical mathematical competencies related to foundational concepts and skills, which purportedly are necessary for later mathematics success. Unfortunately, as Clarke et al. (2014) aptly point out, findings from national assessments (e.g., The Nation's Report Card; National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2013) indicate an alarming rate of poor performance by students who continue to struggle with learning mathematical knowledge. Undoubtedly, a significant number of children demonstrate poor mathematics achievement (Swanson, 2006) that is persistent and pervasive, with long-term problems associated with mathematics difficulties (Geary, 2004; Griffin & Case, 1997).

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