Volume 6, Issue 3 (1977)
Issues in the Unbiased Assessment of Intelligence
Testing has become big business in America. For example, there are an estimated 250 million standardized tests of academic ability and achievement administered each year (Laosa, 1976). Furthermore, the testing industry grossed in the 1969-1970 school year a total of $19,365,000 and projected gross profits in the 19704971 school year of $20,566,000 (Williams, Note 1). Beginning with the Army testing program of 1917-1918, testing has grown in acceptance in America. However, according to Laosa (1976) public and professional attitudes toward testing are changing. Perhaps this is so because of the two primary purposes behind the administration of tests: (1) diagnosis-intervention ; (2) inclusion-exclusion. Because inclusion into higher education or better paying jobs provides the opportunity for a better quality of life in this society, exclusion on the basis of test performance (usually a one to three hour sampling of behaviors under very specialized conditions) has led many to challenge the accuracy of the inclusion-exclusion process. The challenges to the selection process have surfaced in the form of a number of issues surrounding unbiased assessment.
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