Volume 28, Issue 2 (1999)
Disease and Demographic Risk Factors for Disrupted Cognitive Functioning in Children With Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
Clarissa S. Holmes, M. Catherine Cant, Meredith A. Fox, Naomi L. Lampert, Tammy Greer
Abstract: Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) is an illness that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Both acute and chronic metabolic abnormalities relate to poorer neuropsychological functioning in the areas of information processing speed, visual spatial ability, and memory. Children with IDDM demonstrate lower intellectual functioning than controls with some subgroups at greater risk than others. Poorer metabolic control including both recurrent hypoglycemia and severe hyperglycemia, earlier age of disease onset, and longer disease duration are related to lower IQ scores. Lower academic achievement scores also are found, and a substantial proportion of children with diabetes have received special school services, especially those children from the higher risk groups. Neurodevelopmentally, boys rather than girls are at greater risk for learning problems, and gender effects are magnified with diabetes. Poorer metabolic control is consistently associate with lower SES groups, and boys from lower SES families have clinically lower IQ scores.
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