School Psychology Review

Services to Preschoolers and Children With Low Incidence Handicaps
Volume 8, Issue 3 (1979 )

Editor: Kathryn C. Gerken

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  • Editorial Comment

    Kathryn C. Gerken

    pp. 247

    During 1979, the International Year of the Child, the focus is on all children and the protection of their rights. However, the focus of this issue of the SchooZ Psychology Digest is on a group of children who are a minority because of low incident handicapping conditions and/or because of their age. It appears that in the past there have been enough children in these categories to warrant special services, but not enough to guarantee the provision of the best possible services. These children do present problems in assessment because of their age and type of handicap. However, Public Law 94-142 is now demanding what ethical standard always did-the coordinated efforts of personnel from many disciplines to screen, evaluate, and appropriate assessment and intervention.

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  • Procedural Guidelines for Low Incidence Assessment

    Michael C. Forcade, Christopher M. Matey, David W. Barnett

    pp. 248-256

    ABSTRACT: While many useful references exist in the literature relating to specific evaluation techniques that may be appropriate for low incidence assessment, the procedures involved deserve closer attention. The process of developmental assessment of various domains through the techniques of interviewing, observation and the adaptive use of test materials is reviewed from the perspective of school psychology. Although low incidence assessment requires the modification of the traditional role of the school psychologist especially where parents are concerned, the approach outlined is felt to be consistent with instructional methodology stemming from Public Law 94-142. The focus is on two areas. the first is developmental, behavioral assessment that is individualized for each child. The second area stresses the relationship between assessment, intervention,and program evaluation.

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  • Psychological Tests Used With Blind and Visually Handicapped Persons

    Mary Kay Bauman, Carol A. Kropf

    pp. 257-270

    ABSTRACT: Questionnaires were distributed to psychologists serving blind and visually handicapped persons in public and private schools and agencies. The questionnaires requested the names, frequency of use, and evaluations of all tests used with visually impaired individuals. Questionnaires were returned by 104 psychologists and the results are presented in 10 tables. It seems clear that there was little unanimity either in tests used or the evaluation of those tests. One must conclude that with the possible exception of the Wechsler Verbal Scales, no test has proven sufficiently satisfactory to be fully accepted for use with blind and visually handicapped persons.

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  • Psychological Evaluation and Testing of Children Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Patricia M. Sullivan, McCay Vernon

    pp. 271-295

    ABSTRACT: The article updates previous guides to psychological tests and testing procedures with hearing-impaired children. An overview of the present status of psychological services is presented. General testing considerations with hearing-impaired children are thoroughly described. Additional handicapping conditions and testing issues are presented. Specific tests are recommended and/or evaluated in the intellectual, behavioral/personality, academic achievement,neuropsychologic, communication/language, and vocational interest/aptitude assessment areas. Finally, the essential components of a psychological evaluation of a hearing-impaired youngster are delineated and described.

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  • A Review of Sattler's Modifications of Standard Intelligence Tests for Use With Handicapped Children

    Robert G. Harrington

    pp. 296-302

    In this review, the problems encountered by school psychologists in performing an unbiased assessment of the intelligence of physically handicapped children are discussed. Issues in the validity and reliability of clinical adaptations of existing intelligence tests are raised. Finally, Sattler’s research on a non-verbal form of selected Stanford-Binet tests and WISC subtests to assess normal, mentally retarded and cerebral-palsied children is presented. It is concluded that Sattler’s research represents not only an advance in experimental design over previous investigations but also demonstrates that at least some modified tests may serve as substitutes for standard tests with handicapped children. Future research into the predictive validity of the tests as well as certain modifications of some of the multiple-choice items are suggested. Overall, however, the results of Sattler’s work are seen as very encouraging.

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  • Bridging the Gap From Preschool to School for th eDisadvantaged Child

    Howard L. Garber

    pp. 303-310

    ABSTRACT: Early childhood education and its lack of success in solving the problems of disadvantaged preschoolers is discussed as well as the various sources for the problems the children encounter in school. Research is reported that supports providing a comprehensive rehabilitation program for the family rather than just the preschooler. It is pointed out that seriously disadvantaged children require structured programs which will provide them with support and the appropriate school-type competencies needed to succeed in a standard school program.Suggestions are made as to how the school psychologist can help insure that the preschoolers receive the needed support through the early school years.

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  • Preschool Psychology: A Personal View

    Richard Elardo

    pp. 311-318

    ABSTRACT: This paper represents a portrait of the author’s experience in three “nontraditional” roles as a school psychologist in several early childhood education programs. The roles described are those of consultant, program developer, and researcher. It is argued that both fields-school psychology and early childhood education-will benefit if school psychologists are given the opportunity to function in a variety of roles.

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  • The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities: Research Implications for the Assessment of Young Children

    Richard J. Nagle

    pp. 319-326

    ABSTRACT: A review of the reliability and validity studies of the McCarthy Scales of children’s Abilities (MSCA) shows that the MSCA has excellent reliability and stability; however, its concurrent validity with conventional IQ tests suggest that the McCarthy GCI and IQ are not comparable. Suggestions for future research aimed at delimiting the factors which moderate the GCI-IQ discrepancy were forwarded. The use of the MSCA in the assessment of preschool children was also discussed.

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  • Professional Pulse

    Thomas K. Fagan

    pp. 327-329

    The March, 1979 listing of Selected U.S. Government Publications includes a series on “Project Head Start: Mainstreaming Preschoolers.” The three books in the series are:

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  • Book Reviews

    pp. 330-334

    In reality, the authors of this text have put three books into one volume. The first two parts, an overview of assessment and a short course in statistics, would be the first book. The second, Part 3 titled “Testing: Domains Sampled and Representative Tests,”considers various kinds of instruments in detail. And the third, Part 4, is concerned with the application of assessment information.

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  • Time With the Psychologist as Reinforcement for Work Completion

    James Heider

    pp. 335-338

    Simple checklists have been used extensively to monitor academic behaviors.Checklists have been used as well to monitor behaviors in the home, with the overall context for implementation often taking the form of a contingency contract (Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales and Rechs, 1968).

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  • A Behavior Game for the Reduction of Inappropriate Classroom Behaviors

    Dana Hegerle, Mary Pat Kescher, James V. Couch

    pp. 339-343

    Many educators and school psychologists have recently begun to assess the effectiveness of a wide variety of behavioral techniques for the reduction of disruptive classroom behaviors. By carefully structuring the classroom environment, these professionals have arranged certain contingencies of reinforcement to provide a better learning environment for school children. An array of behavior modification programs have been implemented in an attempt to deal with the “problem child” in the classroom.

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