School Psychology Review
A Growth Curve Analysis of Literacy Performance Among Second-Grade, Spanish-Speaking, English-Language Learners
Gabriel Gutiiérrez & Mike L. Vanderwood
Abstract. The literacy growth of 260 second-grade English learners (ELs) with varying degrees of English language proficiency (e.g., Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced English language proficiency) was assessed with English literacy skill assessments. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures were compared across one academic school year. Growth curve analyses revealed that initial literacy skill status varied significantly by level of English language proficiency, with Advanced EL students beginning the second grade with the ability to read more words than students with lower levels of English proficiency. In addition, students with Advanced English proficiency levels had steeper oral reading fluency slopes across the academic year, more similar to native English speakers. These findings also suggest that it may be important to assess the phonemic awareness skills of second-grade ELs with Beginning levels of English language proficiency.