School Psychology Review

General Issue
Volume 42, Issue 1 (2013 )

Editor: Matthew K. Burns

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  • A Growth Curve Analysis of Literacy Performance Among Second-Grade, Spanish-Speaking, English-Language Learners

    Gabriel Gutiiérrez & Mike L. Vanderwood

    pp. 3-21

    Abstract. The literacy growth of 260 second-grade English learners (ELs) with varying degrees of English language proficiency (e.g., Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced English language proficiency) was assessed with English literacy skill assessments. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures were compared across one academic school year. Growth curve analyses revealed that initial literacy skill status varied significantly by level of English language proficiency, with Advanced EL students beginning the second grade with the ability to read more words than students with lower levels of English proficiency. In addition, students with Advanced English proficiency levels had steeper oral reading fluency slopes across the academic year, more similar to native English speakers. These findings also suggest that it may be important to assess the phonemic awareness skills of second-grade ELs with Beginning levels of English language proficiency.

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  • Individual Part Score Profiles of Children With Intellectual Disability: A Descriptive Analysis Across Three Intelligence Tests

    Renee Bergeron & Randy G. Floyd

    pp. 22-38

    Abstract. This study examined the group- and individual-level part score profiles of children with intellectual disability (ID) who participated in clinical validity studies supporting three individually administered intelligence tests. Across tests, children with ID produced group-level profiles comprising mean part scores that fell in the Low to Very Low ranges. However, profile similarity analysis revealed that few of these children exhibited profiles similar to their respective group-level profile. When profiles of individual children were examined, 7% to 17% obtained at least one part score in the Average range or higher (standard score 90), and 33% to 52% obtained at least one part score in the Low Average range or higher (standard score 80). Moreover, the percentage of children who would not be identified as having ID based on elevated part scores ranged between 33% and 80%. Based on these results and considering the diagnostic criteria for ID, deferring diagnosis and denying services to children who meet all criteria for ID but who have elevated part scores yielded from valid testing, when there is no diagnosis or eligibility category better describing the impairing condition, appears to be a flawed and inappropriate practice.

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  • Academic Benefits of Peer Tutoring: A Meta-Analytic Review of Single-Case Research

    Lisa Bowman-Perrott, Heather Davis, Kimberly Vannest, Lauren Williams, Charles Greenwood, & Richard Parker

    pp. 39-55

    Abstract. Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that involves students helping each other learn content through repetition of key concepts. This meta-analysis examined effects of peer tutoring across 26 single-case research experiments for 938 students in Grades 1–12. The TauU effect size for 195 phase contrasts was 0.75 with a confidence interval of CI95 = 0.71 to 0.78, indicating that moderate to large academic benefits can be attributed to peer tutoring. Five potential moderators of these effects were examined: dosage, grade level, reward, disability status, and content area. This is the first peer tutoring meta-analysis in nearly 30 years to examine outcomes for elementary and secondary students, and extends previous peer tutoring meta-analyses by examining disability as a potential moderator. Findings suggest that peer tutoring is an effective intervention regardless of dosage, grade level, or disability status. Among students with disabilities, those with emotional and behavioral disorders benefitted most. Implications are discussed.

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  • Comparison of Parent Education and Functional Assessment-Based Intervention Across 24 Months for Young Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    George J. DuPaul, Lee Kem, Robert Volpe, Grace I. L. Caskie, Natalie Sokol, Lauren Arbolino, John Van Brakle, & Mary Pipan

    pp. 56-75

    Abstract. Preschool-aged children with or at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant challenges with behavioral, social, and preacademic skills. Kern et al. (2007) examined 12-month intervention outcomes for 135 children, aged 3–5, with or at risk for ADHD. Two interventions, parent education alone and parent education plus functional assessment-based home and school intervention, were compared. Few group differences were found. In the current analysis, an expanded number of outcome measures were examined, including ADHD symptoms, direct observations of child behavior, academic skills, parent variables (e.g., stress), and treatment acceptability. Maintenance of treatment effects across 24 months was also examined. Although no group differences were found, statistically significant improvements for 27 of 46 outcome variables were obtained, indicating that parent education alone was effective. Parents and teachers reported intervention to be moderately acceptable. The findings suggest a tiered approach to intervention may be necessary for optimal outcomes.

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  • Observations of Effective Teacher–Student Interactions in Secondary School Classrooms: Predicting Student Achievement With the Classroom Assessment Scoring System–Secondary

    Joseph Allen, Anne Gregory, Amori Mikami, Janetta Lun, Bridget Hamre, & Robert Pinata

    pp. 76-98

    Abstract. Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System— Secondary. After accounting for prior year test performance, qualities of teacher interactions with students predicted student performance on end-of-year standardized achievement tests. Classrooms characterized by a positive emotional climate, with sensitivity to adolescent needs and perspectives, use of diverse and engaging instructional learning formats, and a focus on analysis and problem solving were associated with higher levels of student achievement. Effects of higher quality teacher–student interactions were greatest in classrooms with fewer students. Implications for teacher performance assessment and teacher effects on achievement are discussed.

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  • Beyond Behavior: Multilevel Analysis of the Influence of Sociodemographics and School Characteristics on Students' Risk of Suspension

    Amanda L. Sullivan, David A. Klingbeil, & Ethan R. Van Norman

    pp. 99-114

    Abstract. Minority disproportionality in school discipline outcomes continues to trouble practitioners and scholars. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of school policy enactment (e.g., retention rates, special education identification) on students’ risk of suspension. The sample consisted of archival student and school-level data for approximately 18,000 kindergarten through 12th-grade students in 39 schools of a Midwestern school district. We used multilevel logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression to estimate students’ risk of receiving one or more suspensions. Results indicated that gender, race, disability, and socioeconomic status were significantly related to suspension risk, but that school variables reflecting school-level demographics, performance, and teacher characteristics were not. Implications for future research, service delivery, and policy development are discussed.

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  • Author Guidelines

    pp. 115-117

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  • Call for Papers

    pp. 118

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