School Psychology Review

Achievement, Placement, and Services: Middle School Benefits of Class-Wide Peer Tutoring Used at the Elementary Schools

Charles E. Greenwood, Barbara Terry, Cheryl A. Utley, Debra Montagna, Dale Walker

pp. 497-516

Mini-Series: Conduct Disorders: Current Research, Theory, an Practice

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In a longitudinal, experimental field trial that spanned Grades 1 to 4, we reported that changes in classroom processes produced by the Class Wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) Program covaried with statistically and educationally significant levels of growth in at-risk students’ academic achievement assessed on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (Greenwood, 1991; Greenwood, Delquadri, & Hall, 1989). In the present study, we investigated follow-up outcomes 2 years later at the end of sixth grade in middle school. After controlling for initial differences in first grade IQ (Otis & Lennon, 1979) and achievement (NCEs), comparisons between two at-risk, low SES groups (i.e., control and experimental CWPT) and a nonrisk index group 6 years later, indicated that the CWPT and index groups had: (a) maintained a significant advantage in growth on the reading, language, and mathematics subscales of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (NCEs), although some effect sizes were reduced, (b) produced significantly higher performance on the science and social studies subscales not previously assessed; and (c) realized significantly fewer group members placed into special education programs between first and sixth grade who had also received less restrictive services. Comparisons between the CWPT and index groups indicated that the CWPT group performed as well as the index group on approximately one-half of the comparisons made. The implications of these findings for both prevention and for prereferral intervention in the regular education program are discussed.