School Psychology Review

Mini-Series: Self-Management Interventions in the Schools
Volume 21, Issue 2 (1992 )

Editor: Edward S. Shapiro


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  • Issues Surrounding the Use of Self-Management Interventions in Schools

    Christine L. Cole, Linda M. Bambara

    pp. 193-201

    Self-management interventions have been shown to successfully remediate a variety of academic and behavior problems exhibited by children in the classroom. Despite this substantial empirical research support, self-management interventions do not appear to be used on a widespread basis in the schools. As a means of introducing self-management, relevant terms are defined and examples of various self-management procedures are provided. A distinction is made between contingency-based self-management approaches and cognitive behavioral approaches. Finally, several potential problems and/or issues impeding the widespread application of self-management interventions in school settings are discussed.

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  • Issues Surrounding the Use of Self-Management Interventions for Increasing Academic Performance

    Christopher H. Skinner, Emily S. Smith

    pp. 202-210

    Self-management interventions can be particularly useful strategies for managing students’behaviors in school. By training students to self-observe, record, evaluate, correct, and prompt their own behaviors, school psychologists and teachers may be able to structure classroom ecologies so all students can succeed academically. Although researchers have yet to clearly establish the variable(s) that bring about change when self-managed academic interventions are employed, many procedural guidelines have been established. This manuscript reviews the research on self-management procedures and their effects on academic performance,

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  • Self-Managed Learning Strategy Systems for Children and Youth

    B. Keith Lenz

    pp. 211-228

    The infusion of instruction in learning strategies into school curricula has become an important goal in many school districts. However, strategy instruction has taken many forms. While the goal of strategy instruction has been to promote independent learning and performance of students, considerable variance has existed in the actual content and design of the learning strategy interventions and in how these interventions are selected and taught to students. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics of and research associated with the learning strategies interventions developed by a group of researchers associated with the University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities. The bulk of this research has been conducted with students with learning problems attending grades 7 through 12 in public school settings. In presenting this review, the author hopes to stimulate discussion on the critical features associated with the successful development and infusion of programs designed to teach academic self-management to students in school settings.

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  • Evaluation of the Parameters of Self-Modeling Interventions

    Elaine Clark, Thomas J. Kehle, William R. Jenson, Donald E. Beck

    pp. 246-254

    This article provides a description of self-modeling and its underlying theory. Various applications of self-modeling are described and a critical analysis of the research literature is provided. Ways to improve the potency of the intervention, including the use of self-modeling as a self-management technique, are suggested

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  • Self-Managed Groups: Fitting Self-Management Approaches Into Classroom Systems

    John W. Fantuzzo, Cynthia A. Rohrbeck

    pp. 255-263

    Factors limiting the use of traditional, classroom self-management interventions are considered. These factors include aspects of self-management approaches contributing to the inappropriateness and impracticality of these interventions for classroom-wide use. Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) is presented as a strategy with self-management features that holds promise for classroom use. RPC combines student choice and student managements with interdependent group reward contingencies and reciprocal peer teaching. An example of the design, implementation, and evaluation of a school-based RPI’ intervention for an urban public elementary school is presented. The illustration is followed by a discussion identifying RPT features which may have enhanced utilization.

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  • A Brief Commentary on the Future of Self-Management Approaches Into Classroom Systems

    Thomas A. Brigham

    pp. 264-268

    The theoretical or conceptual basis of educational research on self-management procedures is examined. It is argued that although most theorizing is essentially sound, two fundamental errors have and will continue to limit the effectiveness and impact of self-management procedures in schools. The first is the tendency to assume self-management interventions are not dependent on environmental variables for their success. The second is the erroneous view that self-management procedures are only appropriate or required for “special” students. Both points are discussed in the context of the design of classroom programs. It is strongly argued that self-management procedures are environmental interventions and, when properly implemented, are a better way of teaching all students. Finally school psychologists are urged to take a more active role in the redesign of our educational system.

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  • Assessment Practices of School Psychologists: Ten Years Later

    Jerry B. Hutton, Richard Dubes, Steven Muir

    pp. 271-284

    A descriptive survey of the frequency of usage of instruments grouped into nine assessment areas was mailed to 1,000 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists (1988). Of the surveys returned, 389 were usable. The survey form used by Goh, Teslow, and Fuller (1981) was modified for use in the current study. The respondents reported spending more than one-half their time in assessment activities (M = 52.74%), suggesting that the continued call for a de-emphasis on assessment remains unheeded. Comparisons between the Goh et al. study show that the reported usage of intelligence tests has lessened somewhat during the lo-year period while the use of achievement tests has increased. Also, school psychologists report using behavior rating and adaptive behavior measures to a greater extent within the past 10 years.

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  • Teacher Ratings of DSM-III-R Symptoms for the Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Prevalence, Factor Analyses, and Conditional Probabilities in a Special Education Sample

    William E. Pelham, Jr., Steven W. Evans, Elizabeth N. Gnagy, Karen E. Greenslade

    pp. 285-299

    Ratings were collected on a rating scale comprised of the DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for disruptive behavior disorders. Teacher ratings were obtained for 364 boys in special education classrooms in elementary schools from around North America. Prevalence rates of attention deficit-hyperactivity (ADHD), oppositional-defiant (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) scales are reported by age. A factor analysis revealed four factors: one reflecting ODD and several CD symptoms, one on which ADHD symptoms of inattention loaded, one comprised of ADHD impulsivity symptoms, and a fourth on which covert CD symptoms loaded. Conditional probability analyses revealed several hallmark symptoms of ADHD had very poor positive predictive power, and items differed on their utility as inclusionary or exclusionary symptoms for diagnosis. Implications of these results for school psychologists’ practices are discussed.

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  • Estimating Trend in Progress Monitoring Data: A Comparison of Simple Line-Fitting Methods

    Richard Parker, Gerald Tindal, Stephanie Stein

    pp. 300-312

    Four simple line-fitting procedures are presented for practitioners to quickly summarize student time series performance data. Two are in common use - Koenig’s “quarter-intersect” and White’s “split-middle” adjustment, while two - Tukey I and Tukey II - are less known. Each of the four can be performed on a medium-size classroom dataset in less than 3 minutes. The four procedures were assayed against three criteria: (a) matching line slopes to an ordinary least squares (OLS) standard; (b) “best fit” to the data (minimizing residuals); and (c) prediction of a future reading score at Week 16. Weekly oral reading fluency data were collected on 45 Grade 4 and 5 students with reading disabilities, over a period of 12 weeks. Tukey I and II techniques generally outperformed the Koenig and White line-fitting methods, especially White’s “split-middle” adjustment. Performance differences were generally large enough to be educationally meaningful. Given the small database supporting the popular White and Koenig procedures, the authors recommend that practitioners cautiously try out Tukey I and II procedures, comparing results with Koenig’s and White’s procedures. Of course, further psychometric studies of all four procedures are needed also. The authors discuss three notable study limitations: limited generalizability, use of the future score prediction criterion, and no instructional use of the best fit lines.

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  • Speech/Language Referral Practices by School Psychologists

    Leonore Ganschow, Richard Sparks, Mark Helmick

    pp. 313-326

    A total of 951 school psychologists responded to a survey about language learning disabilities (LLD) and speech/language referral practices. Of the respondents, 68% reported having had minimal training in the assessment of speech/language disorders and 66% reported limited interaction with speech/ language pathologists during preservice training. The WISC-R was the main indicator used by the reporting school psychologists to determine need for speech/ language referral; 36% used the Verbal/Performance discrepancy; 7% a below average Verbal IQ; and 5% the Vocabulary subscale. Instruments used most frequently in the identification of learning disabilities (LD) were the WISC-R, Bender Gestalt, Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery: Achievement, Visual-Motor Integration Test, and a sentence completion task. Most school psychologists referred at least some students with LD to a speech/language pathologist, but over 50% referred only l-10% of the identified and/or suspected LD population. Implications for school psychologists are discussed.

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  • Aptitude-Achievement Discrepancy Scores: Accuracy in Analysis Ignored

    Roslyn P. Ross

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