School Psychology Review

Enhancing Academic Performance: Issues in Target Selection

Robert D. Hoge, D.A. Andrews

pp. 228-238

Mini-Series on Psychological Maltreatment of Children

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ABSTRACT: Two alternative types of targets are employed in efforts to enhance academic achievement in the classroom. The focus in the first is on academically relevant classroom behaviors and in the second on academic performance. This review considers 22 experimental investigations in which data are presented on the validity of those two types of targets relative to the achievement criterion. The results of the studies are interpreted as supporting the validity of the academic performance targets but not the classroom behavior targets. Some limitations on these conclusions are discussed, as are directions for future research.