School Psychology Review

Mini-Series on Psychological Maltreatment of Children
Volume 16, Issue 2 (1987 )

Editor: Stephen N. Elliott

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  • Editor's Comments

    Stephen N. Elliott

    pp. 123

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  • Guidelines for Authors, Etc.

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  • Guest Editor's Comments

    Marla R. Brassard, Stuart N. Hart

    pp. 126

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  • Psychological Maltreatment: The Unifying Construct in Child Abuse and Neglect

    Marla R. Brassard, Mark S. Gelardo

    pp. 127-136

    ABSTRACT: Psychological maltreatment is increasingly receiving attention as a prevalent and destructive form of child abuse and neglect that constitutes a serious mental health problem for children. This article presents a reconceptualization of psychological maltreatment as the destructive force in child abuse and neglect, reviews the empirical evidence on the relationship between maltreatment and school readiness and performance, and outlines an agenda for intervention efforts on the part of school psychologists.

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  • Child Abuse and Neglect: A Review of the Literature

    Mark S. Gelardo, Esther E. Sanford

    pp. 137-155

    ABSTRACT: The present article provides a comprehensive overview of the current literature concerning the physical abuse and neglect of children. Research examining the epidemiology and etiology of this social disorder, as well as parent and child characteristics and the effects of maltreatment on children is reviewed. Increased knowledge can offer the clinician improved ability for the intervention, treatment, and prevention of child abuse and neglect.

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  • A Developmental View of the Psychological Consequences of Maltreatment

    Martha Farrell Erickson, Byron Egeland

    pp. 156-168

    ABSTRACT: Central to all patterns of maltreatment is insensitivity to the emotional needs of the child. Such insensitivity by caregivers early in the child’s life has been shown to have long-term effects on the child’s psychological development. This article includes a summary of findings on the consequences of maltreatment in early childhood,followed by a discussion of major developmental issues during infancy and toddlerhood and salient features of sensitive and insensitive parenting during those periods.Finally, the article addresses implications of this information for school psychologists.

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  • Psychological Maltreatment in Schooling

    Stuart N. Hart

    pp. 169-180

    ABSTRACT: Maltreatment of children occurs not only within the family. There is a growing awareness that it occurs in other child care settings, including schools. The majority of maltreatment to which students are subjected is psychological in nature. This article describes five conditions of psychological maltreatment which occur in the context of schooling: (a) discipline and control through fear and intimidation; (b)low quantity and quality of human interaction; (c) limited opportunities to develop competency and self-worth; (d) encouragement to be dependent; and (e) denial of opportunities for healthy risk-taking. It clarifies the issues associated with these conditions and it provides direction for combating them.

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  • What Can the School Do on Behalf of the Psychologically Maltreated Child and the Community?

    James Garbarino

    pp. 181-187

    ABSTRACT: Schools are capable of taking important roles in preventing and combating maltreatment occurring in the home and community. This article describes these roles and their implications for five categories of psychological maltreatment (terrorizing,rejecting, isolating, ignoring and corrupting) in terms of their impact on school-aged children developing intellectual, social and emotional competencies. School based programming for prevention and intervention is described, and its potential use illustrated with case studies.

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  • Psychological Maltreatment and the Schools: Problems of Law and Professional Responsibility

    Gary B. Melton, Janet Corson

    pp. 188-194

    ABSTRACT: With federal leadership, most states have recognized “mental injury” to children as a cause for intervention in families. However, they generally have failed to provide specific definitions, and the reliability and validity of reports of psychological maltreatment are questionable. Because the burden is on the state to provide personal security for children in its care, possible false positive errors in identification are less grievous in schools and other institutions than in families. In their institutions,states have an ethical and legal duty to prevent intrusions upon privacy that may damage self-esteem and sense of personal dignity. School psychologists have a responsibility to prevent and correct such intrusions.

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  • Television as a Source of Maltreatment of Children

    Leonard D. Eron, L. Rowell Huesmann

    pp. 195-202

    ABSTRACT: Words and actions may embody psychological maltreatment of genuine destructive power. This destructive power can be expressed through the broadcast media, and particularly through television. Television influences attitudes and behaviors. Frequently the results are anti-social in nature. Heavy exposure to televised violence is one of the causes of aggressive behavior, crime, and violence in society. This article reviews the research findings which have established relations between television viewing and the subsequent attitudes and behaviors of viewers giving particular attention to the influences of televised violence. It concludes by identifying the implications and remedies for public policy, society and for the parents and educators responsible for the daily experiences of children.

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  • In Vitro Flooding of a Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Philip A. Saigh

    pp. 203-211

    ABSTRACT: An in vitro flooding package was used to treat the post traumatic stress disorder of a 10-year-old girl. Traumatic scenes were identified and stimulus and response imagery cues were presented according to a multiple baseline across traumatic scenes design. Post treatment and 6 month follow-up assessments revealed that the girl’s affective, behavioral, and cognitive parameters were positively influenced by the treatment package.

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  • Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions: A Review of the Literature

    Thomas M. Reimers, David P. Wacker, Gina Koeppl

    pp. 212-227

    ABSTRACT: Factors related to the acceptability of behavioral treatment interventions are reviewed. The discussion includes a variety of factors which have been reported to influence ratings of acceptability, including problem severity, treatment approach,time needed for treatment implementation, treatment integrity, effectiveness of treatment, and understanding. At the completion of the review, a model for conceptualizing the impact of acceptability on treatment compliance, effectiveness, and maintenance is proposed. In addition, suggestions for further research are provided.

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  • Enhancing Academic Performance: Issues in Target Selection

    Robert D. Hoge, D.A. Andrews

    pp. 228-238

    ABSTRACT: Two alternative types of targets are employed in efforts to enhance academic achievement in the classroom. The focus in the first is on academically relevant classroom behaviors and in the second on academic performance. This review considers 22 experimental investigations in which data are presented on the validity of those two types of targets relative to the achievement criterion. The results of the studies are interpreted as supporting the validity of the academic performance targets but not the classroom behavior targets. Some limitations on these conclusions are discussed, as are directions for future research.

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  • The Child Rating Scale: The Development of Socioemotional Self-Rating Scale for Elementary School Children

    A. Dirk Hightower, Emory L. Cohen, Arline P. Spinell, Bohdan S. Lotyczewski, John C. Guare, Cynthia

    pp. 239-255

    ABSTRACT: This article describes the development of the Child Rating Scale (CRS), a socioemotional self-rating scale for elementary school children. Four CRS Factors, i.e., Rule Compliance/Acting-Out, Anxiety/Withdrawal, Interpersonal Social Skills, and Self-confidence were found consistently across four independent samples totaling more than 2000 1st through 6th grade children. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability,demographic comparisons, and indices of concurrent and construct validity are presented. The scale’s uses and limitations are discussed.

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  • Reviews of Crisis Intervention: A Handbook for Practice and Research, Methods of Family Therapy, Professional Self-Management: Techniques for Service Providers, Attitudes Toward Handicapped Students: Professional, Peer, and Parent Reactions

    Jonathan Sandoval, Cindy L. Carlson, Jerry D. Harris, Mary Elizabeth Hannah

    pp. 256-260

    Increasingly school psychologists have come to recognize that they have important roles to play in helping children mediate life crises. We are surrounded by children who are experiencing events ranging from school entry to parental divorce or death of a classmate, children whose school adjustment is adversely affected by such occurrences. Psychologists are called upon to intervene, counsel or to organize prevention programs to help children overcome hazardous events. As they attempt to deal with children or become involved in prevention programs,many school psychologists realize that they have not had sufficient preparation in helping those in crisis.As they seek additional training in crisis intervention,they encounter an unexpected problem: a dearth of materials on this topic, suitable for school psychologists.

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