School Psychology Review

Mini-Series on Developmental Disabilities
Volume 14, Issue 2 (1985 )

Editor: Stephen N. Elliott


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  • Editor's Comments

    Stephen N. Elliott

    pp. 138

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  • Guidelines for Authors

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  • Guest Editors' Comments: Developmental Disabilities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Michael D. Powers, Sandra L. Harris

    pp. 140-141

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  • Some Next Steps in Rights Protection for the Developmentally Disabled

    Lynn E. McClannahan, Patricia J. Krantz

    pp. 143-149

    ABSTRACT: The past decade produced great strides in rights protection for developmentally disabled youngsters. But, although new or improved licensing standards, certification procedures,human rights committees and peer review committees are necessary, they may not be sufficient to the adequate safeguarding of children’s rights. In this article we examine several program components that help to ensure children’s rights to effective treatment, and place special emphasis upon the importance of hands-on training for professional helpers,and data-based programming for children.

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  • Assessment of Developmentally Disabled Children

    Joan B. Chase

    pp. 150-154

    ABSTRACT: Although formal assessment of children with severe disabilities raises many problems of measurement, evaluation by “standard rulers” is essential lest conclusions about disabled youngsters’ potential development be drawn solely by observation. Repertoires of behavior are observed and evaluated with both commonly-used instruments and some specifically designed for handicapped populations. Specialized techniques of administration and analysis can be employed to yield a profile of functional strengths and weaknesses. Data regarding cognitive, perceptual, motor, language, and social domains may be obtained with findings synthesized to provide specific recommendations for appropriate training strategies. Interventions are then prescribed to foster optimal growth and learning.

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  • Behavioral Assessment and the Planning and Evaluation of Interventions for Developmentally Disabled Children

    Michael D. Powers

    pp. 155-161

    ABSTRACT: Research in assessment and intervention with developmentally disabled children has led to important advances in recent years. In particular, this work has facilitated the development of behavioral assessment principles and methods that have important implications for the delivery of school psychological services to these children. After noting the advantages of behavioral assessment for developmentally disabled children, conceptual and practical issues important to the process of behavioral assessment will be identified and discussed. A framework for the behavioral assessment of the developmentally disabled will then be presented, with a special emphasis on ecological/systems assessment

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  • Developmental Disabilities: The Family and the School

    Sandra L. Harris, Pattey L. Fong

    pp. 162-165

    ABSTRACT: The school psychologist can most effectively create enduring change for the developmentally disabled child if he or she carefully assesses the child’s family context. This article briefly reviews current literature on the experiences of mothers, fathers, and siblings of developmentally disabled children with an aim to sensitizing the school psychologist to how these factors may impact upon the disabled child’s experiences. It is suggested that parent training in behavioral techniques will be valuable to the extent that parents have the physical and emotional resources to follow through on these programs. Some families may require counseling or therapy to enable them to integrate effectively the handicapped child into their lives. The school psychologist is in an especially good position to assess on-going family needs,bridge the gap during transitions from one resource to another, and make appropriate referrals when members of the family require additional resources.

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  • Current Issues in School Services for Children With Autism

    J. Gregory Olley, Susan L. Rosenthal

    pp. 166-170

    ABSTRACT: Recent research and practice in the education of students with autism are contrasted with earlier approaches and grouped in seven current issues: assessment, early intervention,family involvement, setting of classrooms, curriculum, program evaluation, and staff training and consultation. These issues both underscore the importance of some current roles for school psychologists and point to new roles that must be played in order to build stronger school services.

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  • Self-Injurious Behavior: Motivating Conditions and Guidelines for Treatment

    V. Mark Durand, Edward G. Carr

    pp. 171-176

    ABSTRACT: Self-injurious behavior is a serious concern for individuals who must provide educational services to developmentally disabled children. In this article, research is discussed that relates to the motivation of self-injury. Recent work has focused on the influence of social attention, tangible rewards, escape from aversive situations, and sensory consequences in the maintenance of self-injurious behavior. The selection of an appropriate treatment depends on the psychologist’s or educator’s ability to assess the impact of these diverse controlling variables. Current behavioral work on self-injurious behavior has attempted to expand the treatment of this behavior from simple manipulation of consequences (e.g., punishment) to a consideration of how to teach children behaviors that can serve as alternatives to self-injurious behavior. Guidelines are outlined for designing treatment programs for self-injurious behavior in light of multiple determining factors. Finally a new, non-aversive treatment, differential reinforcement of communication (DRC), is described and discussed.

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  • Behavioral Self-Help Training for Developmentally Disabled Individuals

    Walter P. Christian, Stephen C. Luce

    pp. 177-181

    ABSTRACT: Self-help training is a major focus of human service and special education programming for developmentally disabled persons. Applied research in the area of self-help training largely has been concerned with the development of basic skills such as feeding, toileting, grooming,and dressing, as well as community adjustment skills such as public transportation utilization and telephone usage. Researchers have indicated that self-help training is most effective when it involves the consistent, systematic application of the following procedures: (a) assessing self-help skills and deficits prior to training via observation, recording, and standardized measurement of self-help behavior; (b) developing plans and goals for training based on a consideration of the individual’s ultimate level of functioning; (c) preparing the environment for training; (d) implementing effective training programs and procedures; (e) evaluating the effectiveness of training; and (f) promoting maintenance and generalization of newly learned skills.

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  • Recent Advances in Developmental Pediatrics Related to Achievement and School Behavior

    Wendy S. Matthews, Gabor Barabas

    pp. 182-187

    ABSTRACT: Recent advances related to the achievement and school behavior in children with tic syndromes,seizure disorders, and minor physical anomalies (including Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)are discussed. The role of the school psychologist as liaison between the pupil’s teacher, family, and physician is described, as well as his or her role in relation to the children themselves.

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  • Extended School Year Services: From Litigation to Assessment and Evaluation

    Diane M. Browder, Francis E. Lentz

    pp. 188-195

    ABSTRACT: Right to education class action suits have established a precedent for providing extended school year services for severely handicapped students who demonstrate severe skill regression during school breaks and inordinate time to recoup these skills. These decisions have been predicated on the assumption that limiting these students’ education to 180 days conflicts with their right to an appropriate education. Not surprisingly, in an era of fiscal restraint, these extended school year services for severely handicapped students have been controversial. Unfortunately, there has been an absence of research to identify objective and efficient methods to determine eligibility and to evaluate service effectiveness. This article provides a rationale and framework for the development of research to provide guidance for extended services.

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  • Psycho-Social Aspects of Educating Epileptic Children: Roles for School Psychologists

    Brenda M. Frank

    pp. 196-203

    ABSTRACT: Although children with epilepsy are today usually mainstreamed with non-epileptic children,they often have special physical and emotional needs that may interfere with learning and socialization. This paper surveys current prevalence estimates, definitions, and classifications of epilepsy and discusses the relationship between epilepsy and other handicaps.Factors affecting the epileptic child’s school performance and specific learning problems are addressed.Finally, specific roles are presented for school psychologists in educating children with epilepsy.

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  • Case Study Research in School Psychology

    Thomas R. Kratochwill

    pp. 204-215

    ABSTRACT: Case study research has been used relatively often in school and other applied areas of psychology. As traditionally conceived, case study investigation refers to the relatively uncontrolled and subjectively described study of a single case. However, case studies need not be restricted to this form of methodology. Several different types of case studies are reviewed in this paper including non-therapeutic, assessment, and therapeutic/intervention case studies.Case studies can be improved by taking into account numerous methodological factors,including repeated measurement of objective data, planning the treatment, chronicity of the case, size, and impact of effects, the number and diversity of subjects, standardization, and monitoring the integrity of both the independent and dependent variables, employing some type of formal design and data analysis, examining the social validity of outcomes, assessing generalization and maintenance of treatment effects. Several example studies are reviewed in the context of these considerations and recommendations are made for future case study research in school psychology.

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  • A Case Study Method of Assessing Consumer Satisfaction With School Psychology Services

    Helen Vogel Brady

    pp. 216-221

    ABSTRACT: Regular education, elementary level teachers (AW’3) in a midwestern state completed a 22-item questionnaire assessing teacher satisfaction with school psychology service delivery in five areas: contact prior to assessment, assessment/diagnosis, written and oral communication,recommendations/intervention, and personal/professional variables. Teachers expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the psychological services they received. They were less satisfied with availability of psychologists and length of time from referral to action on a case than with other services. This study demonstrates a new technique, a case study method, for assessing teacher satisfaction with school psychology services, and suggestions that teachers’evaluation of school psychology services may be more accurate when reporting on recent and specific cases than when reporting on psychological services in general.

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  • Getting Uncaught in the Middle: A Case Study in Family-School System Consultation

    Thomas J. Power, Karlotta Lutz Bartholomew

    pp. 222-229

    ABSTRACT: Ethnographers and sociologists working in the field of education have described the relationship between home and school as a competitive one which often discourages cooperation and collaboration between parents and teachers. Using Bateson’s model of the symmetrical relationship, a case of a highly escalated family-school conflict was evaluated. The family systems concepts and strategies that were used to promote a working alliance between family and school were also presented.

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  • Impact of Organizational Variables on the Delivery of School-Based Consultation Services: A Comparative Case Study Approach

    Terry B. Gutkin, Julia H. Clark, Michel Ajchenbaum

    pp. 230-235

    It is generally acknowledged that the effectiveness and course of school-based consultation is dependent on a complex combination of many factors. Among these, school organizational factors are believed to have a substantive, and perhaps primary, impact(Gallesich, 1978; Hughes, 1980). Sarason (1971)discusses in detail, the need to examine organizational phenomena when trying to understand the behavior of school personnel. Heargues that individuals operate in various social settings that have a structure not comprehensible by our existing theories of individual personality. In fact, in many situations it is likely that one can predict an individual’s behavior far better on the basis of knowledge of the social structure and his position in it than one can on the basis of his personal dynamics (p. 12).

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  • Reliability and Content Validity of the Children's Anxiety Scale for Anglo-American and Mexican-American Children

    Ed N. Argulewicz, R. Robert Abel, Sally A. Schuster

    pp. 236-238

    ABSTRACT: The Children’s Anxiety Scale (CAS) was examined for bias in internal consistency reliability and item content for Anglo-American and Mexican-American kindergarten students (total N=78). Reliability estimates were highly similar across ethnic and gender groupings. Anethnicityxgenderxitems ANOVA was nonsignificant, indicating the absence of systematically biased items in the CAS for the sample in this study.

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  • The Influence of Rural, Suburban, and Urban Student Background and School Setting Upon Psychoeducational Decisions

    E. Scott Huebner

    pp. 239-241

    ABSTRACT: The influence of a student’s background and setting (rural vs. suburban vs. urban, inner city)upon 383 school psychologists’ diagnostic and program decisions for a case study child was investigated. The findings indicated that psychologists’ decisions were not influenced by the student’s background, school setting, psychologist’s work setting, nor psychologist’s childhood background with one exception. Urban students in urban schools were less likely to be diagnosed as mildly mentally handicapped than urban students who moved into rural or suburban schools. The findings overall suggested that school psychologists are not biased by these variables.

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