School Psychology Review

Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Classroom and Academic Behaviors
Volume 11, Issue 1 (1982 )

Editor: George W. Hynd

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  • Editor's Commentary

    George W. Hynd

    pp. 3

    The School Psychology Review is now entering its eleventh volume year. Under the dynamic leadership of John Guidubaldi, Liam Grimley and Dan Reschly, it has become an established and well respected professional journal. It is indeed an honor to assume the editorship of the Review and follow in the footsteps of my predecessors.

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  • Guest Editors' Preface

    Andrew W. Meyers, Robert Cohen

    pp. 4

    Persuasive evidence exists that childhood maladjustment is predictive of adolescent and adult psychopathology. This suggests that the impact on children and families of childhood emotional and behavioral problems is far reaching. Developing an understanding of and effective treatments for childhood maladjustments should have both immediate and preventive benefits for children and their families.

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  • A Brief Clinical History of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy With Children

    W. Edward Craighead

    pp. 5-13

    ABSTRACT: Although there were earlier applications, the directly traceable history of behavior therapy with children began in the late 1950’s. The major emphasis of behavior therapy with children in the 1960’s was on operant procedures or applied behavior analysis. The late sixties and early seventies witnessed an increased emphasis on internal or cognitive variables as the target and mechanism of therapeutic change; hence the term cognitive-behavior therapy.Cognitive psychology influenced this shift in emphasis in three ways: a cognitive information processing explanation of modeling effects: the employment of the cognitive-developmental language literature in the conception and application of self-instructional training and the development of clinical procedures based on the problem-solving literature. A second factor in the development of cognitive-behavior therapy was the evolution of the cognitive explanation of self-control procedures in clinical work. A third factor was the influence of cognitive therapy, particularly the writings of Ellis and Beck. Suggestions are offered for areas which might be valuable for cognitive-behavior therapists to consider in the eighties.

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  • Cognitive Considerations in Cognitive-Behavior Modification

    Carolyn W. Morris, Robert Cohen

    pp. 14-20

    ABSTRACT:Two themes are emphasized in this review of theory and research on cognitive development in view of their relevance for intervention strategies. The first theme emphasizes the child as an active problem solver, considering three theoretical orientations consistent with this theme. As a second theme, it is suggested that clinical and educational change is best conceptualized in the context of developmental change. Research on the development of the cognitive processes of attention and memory is briefly reviewed. In sum, the importance of the integration of developmental and clinical domains for interventions with children is advocated.

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  • Assessment for Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in the Schools

    Philip C. Kendall, Lauran Braswell

    pp. 21-31

    ABSTRACT: An illustrative selection of measures appropriate for use in evaluation of cognitive-behavioral interventions designed to improve adjustment is reviewed in terms of specifying level and impact level assessments. Behavioral observations, performance on impersonal and interpersonal problem-solving tasks, performance on social cognitive tasks, self-report measures,and procedures for sampling private speech are considered as specifying level assessments.Impact level assessments include teacher/parent ratings, sociometrics, archival data,and normative comparisons. The need to consider factors operative within the school situation is also discussed.

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  • The Use of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Reducing Math Anxiety

    Judy L. Genschaft

    pp. 32-34

    ABSTRACT: Adolescent girls of average achievement were defined as math anxious if their achievement in mathematics was at least one year lower than their reading achievement. Three such groups of twelve each were given tutoring in mathematics, tutoring plus training in self-instruction intended to reduce anxiety and increase self-reinforcing verbalizations, and a third, no treatment group. While both tutoring and self-instruction training resulted in increased ranked preferences for math, achievement in mathematics increased more for the self-instruction group.

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  • Reading Comprehension: Cognitive Training Contributions

    John Lloyd, Marianne M. Kosiewicz, Daniel P. Hallahan

    pp. 35-41

    ABSTRACT: Reading comprehension is a complex cognitive process that presents an opportunity to apply cognitive training techniques. Particularly with reading and learning disabled students,problems in reading comprehension learning may arise from (a) lack of attention to instruction,or (b) absence of strategies for interpreting and remembering what is read. Recent research regarding improvement in these areas through cognitive training is described.

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  • Impulsivity: A Clinical-Developmental Perspective

    Robert Schleser, Donna Thackwray

    pp. 42-46

    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is among the chief causes for children’s referral to mental health services.Although the training effects using cognitive-behavioral interventions have been encouraging,a failure of classroom generalization following treatment is often reported. The focus of this paper is on factors affecting generalization. Traditional cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of impulsivity and an alternate clinical-developmental perspective are presented.A series of studies which support the clinical-developmental perspective and demonstrate the need to consider the nature and role of the impulsive child as participant in impulsivity treatment programs is reviewed. Finally, assessment and future research issues are discussed.

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  • Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches to the Modification of Aggressive Behavior in Children

    Robert E. Kennedy

    pp. 47-55

    ABSTRACT: Contingency management programs for modifying aggression in children are powerful methods of short-term behavior change in the treatment setting but have not consistently led to maintenance of behavior change or its transfer to other settings. Training aggressive children in adaptive overt behaviors has also produced promising results, including long-term facilitative effects in some individuals. However, considerable inter individual variation in response to such treatments has led to the development of cognitively based, interpersonal problem-solving interventions as alternative treatment methods. Cognitive-behavioral interventions with young children have produced some short-term reductions in aggressive behavior in the classroom but little evidence of long-term change. Interventions with problem adolescents, however, have produced impressive evidence for generalization and maintenance of treatment effects. Useful future research would involve comparisons of cognitive with noncognitive behavioral programs as well as tests of the effectiveness of various combinations of cognitive and noncognitive interventions.

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  • Considerations for Developing Effective School-Based Social Problem-Solving (SPS) Training Programs

    Roger P. Weissberg, Ellis L. Gesten

    pp. 56-63

    ABSTRACT: Social problem-solving (SPS) skills training is an approach to primary prevention and competence-building designed to promote children’s abilities to resolve interpersonal conflicts,and consequently, their adjustment. Although initial SPS interventions with inner-city preschoolers and kindergarteners suggested that training facilitated problem-solving skill acquisition which, in turn, mediated improved adjustment.recent studies with older children have yielded equivocal findings. This paper offers suggestions for conducting more effective elementary school-based SPS training programs. The discussion focuses on the key issues of: (a) curriculum content and instructional formats, (b) program structure, (c)instruction and supervision of SPS trainers, and (d) teaching cognitive behavioral SPS skills effectively. The Rochester SPS training program for second- to fourth-grade children is described giving special attention to these issues.

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  • Use of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions by Paraprofessionals in the Schools

    Joseph A. Durlak

    pp. 64-66

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of school-based cognitive-behavioral programs administered by paraprofessionals. Examination of representative outcome studies indicates that paraprofessionals generally achieve positive results in these programs but published reports contain little systematic information on how to recruit, select, train, or supervise paraprofessionals effectively. Several suggestions regarding these latter program dimensions were offered based on the author’s own experience and information provided by others who have worked with paraprofessionals in a variety of programs.

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  • Some Considerations in Evaluating the Clinical Utility of Cognitive Behavior Therapy With Children

    Benjamin B. Lahey, Cyd C. Strauss

    pp. 67-74

    ABSTRACT: Because cognitive behavior therapy is a promising approach for helping children, it is important to carefully evaluate the evidence supporting its effectiveness before advocating it or using it in applied settings. Eight criteria were proposed for use in evaluating the clinical utility of new treatment methods. A treatment method should be considered for use in applied settings only if it can meet most or all of the following criteria: (1) methodologically adequate research has been conducted evaluating its effectiveness; (2) clinically meaningful measures have been used in the evaluation research: (3) the treatment is effective: (4) the treatment is cost-effective; (5) the treatment is comparable or superior to alternate treatments in terms of effectiveness: (6) the treatment has no unacceptable negative side effects: (7) the treatment does not require an unreasonable amount of cooperation and effort from teachers and parents: and (8) the treatment can be used by others in the way it was developed and validated. The research on three types of cognitive behavior therapy (social problem solving,self-instruction, and cognitive fear reduction methods) is reviewed and it is concluded that it is premature to use cognitive behavior therapy in applied settings except under limited conditions.

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  • Current Developments and Research Issues in Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions: A Commentary

    Alan E. Kazdin

    pp. 75-82

    ABSTRACT: Cognitive behavior modification is an area of tremendous activity in education and child clinical psychology. Several features of the approach are noteworthy including the range of educational and clinical problems for which cognitive functioning seems relevant, the possibility of translating advances of basic research into practice, and the implicit promise raised by any new approach that increasingly effective interventions soon will be available. The previous articles in this series have directly attested to the breadth of applications and interventions currently under evaluation. The articles also raise several issues that need to be addressed if cognitive behavior modification is to advance beyond previous approaches. The present article examines several issues raised by previous authors regarding the development and maturation of cognitive behavior modification.

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  • Scoring Difficulty of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities

    Jerome M. Sattler, Lisa S. Squire

    pp. 83-88

    ABSTRACT: Two studies investigated examiner scoring agreement on the Oral Vocabulary, Draw-A-Design,and Draw-A-Child subtests of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities. In Study I, 10 examiners scored four randomly selected normal children’s protocols* Unanimous agreement occurred on scores for 62% of the Oral Vocabulary responses, 39% of the Draw-A-Design drawings, and 72%of the Draw-A-Child body parts. In Study II, 11 different examiners scored 60 preselected ambiguous Oral Vocabulary responses. Considerable scoring disagreement occurred, with unanimous agreement found for only 14% of the responses* The results indicate that ambiguous vocabulary responses are as difficult to score on the McCarthy scales as they are on other individually administered intelligence tests. ‘The Draw-A-Design subtest also was found to be difficult to score. However, Oral Vocabulary responses and Draw-A-Child drawings obtained in a routine administration from normal children were found to provide relatively few scoring problems. Considerable judgment is required in scoring some McCarthy subtests.

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  • Psychological Interventions

    Jacqueline A. Schakel

    pp. 89-99

    This issue marks the beginning of the fourth year of publication of the “Psychological Interventions” section of the School Psychology Review. In my four years as a school psychologist I often have turned eagerly to this section in search of another idea and have been gratified to find a number of useful interventions that have worked for other school psychologists. So it is with pleasure and excitement that I accept editorial responsibilities for this valuable part of the Review. It is my intent to continue the section in the spirit with which it was conceptualized by Dan Reschly, Virginia Monroe, past Editorial Board members, and the readers of the Review as a vehicle for presenting useful, practical intervention ideas that are rooted in research and have proven effective for use by practicing school psychologists.

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  • Action and Reaction

    Nadeen Kaufman

    pp. 100-104

    This section of the School Psychology Review, formerly called “Professional Pulse” under Dr. Tom Fagan’s worthy editorship, will now have a new format and focus. The new title is intended to reflect this change of orientation. “Action & Reaction” is geared to keep both practitioners and academicians alike up to date on the newest research activities undertaken but not widely disseminated in published form, as well as continuing to provide the critical reaction to relevant published works.

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