School Psychology Review

Neuropsychology in the Schools
Volume 10, Issue 3 (1981 )

Editor: George W. Hynd

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  • Editorial Comment: Neuropsychology in the Schools

    George W. Hynd

    pp. 321

    The interface between educational, neurological and psychological knowledge has been long overdue and the potential benefits for school-age children are just now being recognized.

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  • Neuropsychology, Fact or Mythology, Educational Help or Hindrance?

    William H. Geddes

    pp. 322-330

    ABSTRACT: A rationale is presented for the use of neuropsychological knowledge in the better understanding and treatment of the learning disabled child by the school psychologist. Four sub-groups of academic underachievers are identified in order to direct the psychologist to recognize the cases appropriate for neuropsychological assessment. A brief discussion of the validity and usefulness of neuropsychological knowledge for the school psychologist is included.

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  • Neuropsychological Assessment in the Schools

    John E. Obrzut

    pp. 331-342

    ABSTRACT: Concomitant with a growing interest in neuropsychological assessment as it relates to the school environment is the need for procedures that are valid and reliable. This article describes such neuropsychological assessment procedures that school psychologists can employ for the differential assessment of learning disorders primarily caused by dysfunction in the central nervous system. The recommended procedures are based on the theoretical notion that learning acquisition represents a hierarchy of information processing skills. A description of the hierarchical model along with related assessment procedures is presented.

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  • Neuropsychological Assessment and the Habilitation of Learning: Considerations in the Search for the Aptitude X Treatment Interaction

    Cecil R. Reynolds

    pp. 343-349

    ABSTRACT: The search for the aptitude x treatment interaction for providing remedial services to learning problem children has not been a successful one. The neuropsychological paradigm seems to offer another approach built on strong theories to locating an appropriate treatment method based on the outcome of the assessment process. The conceptual requirements of the model are briefly described along with examples of how it might be implemented in school psychological practice. Although our theories and techniques are far from being perfected,they do provide a nomothetic guide to working towards the habilitation of learning for all children.

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  • Language and Brain: Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Reading Disability

    Francis J. Pirozzolo

    pp. 350-355

    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the neuropsychology of written language. The neuroanatomical sites underlying different language disorders are outlined and the neuroanatomical correlations of varieties of aphasia and alexia are employed as a framework upon which to build a model of the portions of the brain necessary to carry out these important cognitive operations. Recent neuropsychological studies of developmental reading disability are discussed and the theoretical implications, as well as the practical considerations, are presented.

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  • A Neuropsychological Case Report of a Child With Auditory-Linguistic Dyslexia

    Ann Obrzut

    pp. 356-361

    ABSTRACT: The following case study reviews the neuropsychological test findings of an auditory-linguistic dyslexic child. Early medical and developmental events which correlated with later auditory processing deficits are presented. A variety of neuropsychological tests tapping intellectual, language, perceptual, and motor processing were administered. Test data were utilized to formulate remedial strategies.

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  • Clinical Application of Neuropsychological Test Data: A Case Study

    Lawrence C. Hartlage

    pp. 362-366

    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychological evaluation provides for the precise measurement of discrete abilities subserved by given cortical regions, as well as systematic assessment of substrates of learning relevant to school settings. These data can assist the school psychologist in understanding learning problems and in developing appropriate intervention strategies. The following case study will demonstrate how the application of a neuropsychological model to the systematic interpretation of test data can provide the school psychologist with a useful approach to diagnosis and treatment of common school problems.

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  • Behavioral Neuropsychology in the Schools

    Arthur MacNeill Horton, Jr.

    pp. 367-372

    ABSTRACT: This article describes a new subdiscipline of neuropsychology in which the application of behavioral principles in the remediation and rehabilitation of organically induced behavior problems is seen as consistent with traditional neuropsychological assessment practices.Considering the recent interest by school psychologists in developing a neuropsychological perspective in the diagnosis and treatment of children with learning problems, an overview of this approach may benefit school psychologists. Theoretical issues, empirical considerations,and future directions pertaining to this area of expertise are discussed with special reference to the practice of school psychology.

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  • Cerebral Dominance and Childhood Learning Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives

    Raymond S. Dean

    pp. 373-380

    ABSTRACT: The present paper examined Orton’s early hypothesis of inconsistent cerebral dominance for linguistically disabled children in light of some 50 years of research. After a brief review of the notion of hemispheric specialization, data from nonintrusive measures of functional asymmetry with learning impaired children was critically evaluated. Controlling for methodological difficulties, the available evidence concerning lateral performance and perceptual asymmetry for language was interpreted in favor of a hypothesis which postulates normal left-hemispheric asymmetry for auditory-verbal stimuli and a relative bilateralization of visual-verbal language for many linguistically disabled children. While data supporting such a theoretical formulation was found available, a history of inconsistent findings in this area suggests caution.

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  • A Critical Commentary on Neuropsychology in the Schools: Are We Ready?

    Jonathan Sandoval, Randy M. Haapanen

    pp. 381-388

    ABSTRACT:The other articles in this issue are discussed and criticized on three grounds. First, the other authors present an overly simplified view of brain functioning. Areas of the brain other than the cortex have dramatic effects on behavior. In addition, the localization hypothesis may not be tenable, it may not be reasonable to generalize findings from adults to children, and lateralization and hemispheric specialization may not be important constructs. Second, the use of neurological explanations and labels for school failure may lead to important and detrimental changes in expectations for the child by adults. Children’s attributions for failure may also shift in an undesirable direction. Third, the educational utility of neuropsychology has not been high in the past and may not contribute to helpful interventions at present. Other psychological constructs and points of view may be just as rich in producing ideas for individual educational plans but have fewer negative side effects than the neuropsychological approach.

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  • Rebuttal to the Critical Commentary on Neuropsychology in the Schools

    George W. Hynd

    pp. 389-393

    ABSTRACT: Concerns raised regarding the integration and application of neuropsychological knowledge in the school environment are addressed. Specifically, a brief overview of the literature suggests that neuropsychological knowledge is relevant to most cases seen by the school psychologist, localization and equipotential theories both have validity, lateralization is a meaningful concept, and other concerns regarding school neuropsychology may reflect a lack of familiarity with the literature.

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  • A Comparison Between the Koppitz and SOMPA Norms for the Koppitz Developmental Bender-Hestalt Scoring System

    Jerome M. Sattler, Gerald E. Bowman

    pp. 396-398

    ABSTRACT: Two sets of norms are available for the Koppitz Developmental Scoring System: one by Koppitz (1975) and one by Mercer and Lewis (1978). The Koppitz norms are based on a nationwide sample of 975 elementary school children, ages 5 to 11 years, whereas the SOMPAnorms are based on a sample of approximately 1,900 children, ages 5 to 11 years, attending public schools in California. The two sets of norms were compared for ages 5 through 8 years which are the most appropriate ages for the Koppitz scoring system. Linear transformed scores for the Koppitz norms were used for the analysis. The results indicated that the two sets of norms often do not provide equivalent percentile ranks for the same raw scores. Until further information is available about the validity of the two sets of norms, caution is urged in making placement decisions based on either set of norms.

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  • Professional Pulse

    Thomas K. Fagan

    pp. 396-398

    Mainstreaming Preschoolers, a series of publications which was developed through the Headstart Program in 1978, has been reprinted and is available through the U.S. Government Printing Office in Washington, DC 20402. Separate booklets deal with emotional disturbance,health impairments, hearing impairments, learning disabilities, mental retardation, orthopedic handicaps, and speech and language impairments.

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  • Book Reviews

    pp. 399-404

    Within the past several years school psychologists have been exposed to an ever increasing number of journal articles, tests, books and curriculum materials relative to a neuropsychological perspective on learning disorders. The factor underlying this increased interest in the neuropsychological basis of learning disorders is, of course, the assumption that most learning disabilities have some neurological origin. The validity of this assumption seems to be supported by a growing body of literature and school psychologists will need to be especially critical of new materials and procedures developed for use in the schools. In order for school psychologists to be critical of new materials they must first be knowledgeable in the area of child neuropsychology.

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  • Remediating Hyperkinetic Behavior With Impulse Control Procedures

    Mike Berger

    pp. 405-407

    John had been medically diagnosed hyperactive. He was eight years old and just starting the third grade. He was average in height and weight and appeared in good health. Teacher observations were confirmed by base line data that indicated John had peak periods of intense activity just prior to the 10 A.M. recess. He took 30 mg. of Ritalin orally, 10 mgs. each at breakfast, at 10 A.M. and at 2 P.M. A history of the child was not immediately available. His family had moved recently into the school district and the parents had delayed several weeks coming into the school to sign permission slips to obtain records. A review of John’s daily test scores and assignments indicated that while there was a significant decrease in hyper kinetic behavior following the administration of Ritalin, his academic performance also dropped significantly. The frequency of hyperkinetic behavior increased markedly after lunch. A time sample base line taken in the classroom indicated 1.5 episodes of out-of-seat behavior per five minute interval (taken at 11:30 A.M.). By 2 P.M. the frequency of hyperkinetic behavior increased to eight (8) episodes per five minute period. John received an additional 10 mg. of Ritalin prior to the 2 P.M. afternoon recess. The frequency of hyperkinetic behavior following recess would return to or near the base rate level of 1.5 out-of-seat episodes

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  • A Brief Case Study Using Behavioral Consultation for Behavioral Reduction

    Michael Ajchenbaum, Cecil R. Reynolds

    pp. 407-408

    The consultation model as developed in its many forms by Caplan (1970), Bergan (1977),and others, has been frequently recommended for use in the schools by school psychologists. The proposed advantages for the consultation model include: (1) the psychologist can handle more cases, since much of the intervention is done by persons other than the psychologist; (2) there is greater utilization of the teacher, on an equal professional level, in all phases of intervention; (3)the teacher, in implementing the intervention, will learn to generalize these new skills to similar future cases and will be able to assist fellow teachers with problems requiring similar intervention.

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  • An Intervention for a Withdrawn Child Based on Teacher Recorded Levels of Social Interaction

    Bayard S. Tarpley, Richard A. Saudergas

    pp. 409-412

    Several studies that have been conducted with isolated preschool children have demonstrated successful techniques for increasing the withdrawn child’s social interactions with peers. The two main strategies are teacher attention (Allen, Bart, Buell, Harris, and Wolf, 1964)and peer prompting (Nordquist and Bradley, 1973; Strain, Shores, and Timm, 1977). The research literature does not indicate to practitioners which technique or combination of intervention techniques might be more effective. Withdrawn children apparently fall along a continuum with respect to their differential interaction with adults and peers (Goetz, Thomson,and Etzel, 1975). There are those children who interact with adults but rarely interact with peers and there are children who rarely interact with adults but have no interaction problems with peers. A third group of children interact with adults and peers at equally low levels. It would therefore seem helpful for practitioners to know the relative levels of interaction that a withdrawn child has with adults and peers so that an intervention strategy based upon the behavior of the child could be designed. In the present study, the withdrawn child was observed to interact frequently with teachers and only minimally with peers. An intervention was thus designed with the teacher, rather than peers, as the focal point.

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